4S Ranch Allied Gardens Alpine Baja Balboa Park Bankers Hill Barrio Logan Bay Ho Bay Park Black Mountain Ranch Blossom Valley Bonita Bonsall Borrego Springs Boulevard Campo Cardiff-by-the-Sea Carlsbad Carmel Mountain Carmel Valley Chollas View Chula Vista City College City Heights Clairemont College Area Coronado CSU San Marcos Cuyamaca College Del Cerro Del Mar Descanso Downtown San Diego Eastlake East Village El Cajon Emerald Hills Encanto Encinitas Escondido Fallbrook Fletcher Hills Golden Hill Grant Hill Grantville Grossmont College Guatay Harbor Island Hillcrest Imperial Beach Imperial Valley Jacumba Jamacha-Lomita Jamul Julian Kearny Mesa Kensington La Jolla Lakeside La Mesa Lemon Grove Leucadia Liberty Station Lincoln Acres Lincoln Park Linda Vista Little Italy Logan Heights Mesa College Midway District MiraCosta College Miramar Miramar College Mira Mesa Mission Beach Mission Hills Mission Valley Mountain View Mount Hope Mount Laguna National City Nestor Normal Heights North Park Oak Park Ocean Beach Oceanside Old Town Otay Mesa Pacific Beach Pala Palomar College Palomar Mountain Paradise Hills Pauma Valley Pine Valley Point Loma Point Loma Nazarene Potrero Poway Rainbow Ramona Rancho Bernardo Rancho Penasquitos Rancho San Diego Rancho Santa Fe Rolando San Carlos San Marcos San Onofre Santa Ysabel Santee San Ysidro Scripps Ranch SDSU Serra Mesa Shelltown Shelter Island Sherman Heights Skyline Solana Beach Sorrento Valley Southcrest South Park Southwestern College Spring Valley Stockton Talmadge Temecula Tierrasanta Tijuana UCSD University City University Heights USD Valencia Park Valley Center Vista Warner Springs

Book length history of downtown's grindhouse theater row in the '60s thru '80s


The Reader's June 21, 2007, cover feature "Before It Was The Gaslamp" detailed the local life and turbulent times of Vince Miranda. In the '70s, Miranda ran a string of downtown grindhouse movie theaters and owned several flophouse hotels (as well as the Hotel San Diego). He was also co-owner of the Pussycat Theatre adult movie chain.

What I didn't mention in the article was that I worked for Miranda's theaters in the late '70s/early '80s. This didn't seem integral to anything being recounted in the article, which was mainly a profile of Miranda and his various local businesses.

I have, however, written a separate account – LAST OF THE ALL-NIGHTERS - of my own memories and experiences while working the downtown theaters. I offer it here, as sort of a DVD-extra, at the bottom of the Gaslamp article, which appears below in its original “War & Peace” director’s cut draft.

Also in this blog, OVER 100 PHOTOS AND GRAPHICS that did NOT appear with the published article, most of which have never been seen outside of Miranda’s family and his closest associates!

I keep expanding this entry, thanks to terrific material being sent to me from folks who've read it all over the globe. This newest draft includes many new graphics (some courtesy myspace.com.sandiegocinerama), and lots of additional information regarding the individual movie theaters operated in San Diego by Walnut Properties in the '70s and '80s.

Also included is an all-new sidebar article, "Vince Miranda, Deep Throat, and the Mafia."

And now, on with the show ------


1 - Before It Was The Gaslamp: Balboa's Last Stand, extended director's cut with rare graphics, unpublished photos

2 - Walnut's Properties: Theater by theater breakdown

3 - People VS Walnut: Legal actions involving Walnut and Pussycat Theaters

4 - Vince Miranda, Deep Throat, and the Mafia

5 - Last Of The All Nighters: A Walnut Clerk Remembers

6 - Vince Miranda: The Man Who Raped San Diego? A blogger's rebuttal -----



One day, he's a lauded real-estate visionary being handed the key to the city by Mayor Frank Curran. Then, he's battling city officials as they appropriate his downtown properties in the name of some barely imaginable civic Xanadu being dubbed "the Gaslamp Quarter."

He entertained the rich and famous in his Hotel San Diego suite full of priceless memorabilia and was romantically linked to actress Rose Marie, though he was actually a closeted homosexual and co-owner of California's notorious Pussycat chain of porn theaters, whose downtown branch was no small catalyst in his becoming persona non grata among the same metropolitan moguls who'd once feted him.

Vincent Paul Miranda helped shape downtown for much of the '70s and '80s, back when the district still clung to its Wild West, sailors-on-shore-leave legacy. His company Walnut Properties ran a string of movie houses south of Broadway. For a time, he also owned a legitimate stage theater downtown (Off Broadway), as well as several local hotels, including the Hotel San Diego, where he maintained a posh part-time residence.


In the ‘70s, the bright, flashing marquees of his Cabrillo Theater and Plaza Theater faced Broadway from the south side of Horton Plaza.


The Aztec, Casino, and Bijou were also part of the chain, operating just as colorfully and tirelessly on Fifth Avenue.


Films were grinded out almost nonstop, from 9:30 a.m. through 5:30 a.m. (hence the term "grindhouse"), with action, horror, and soft-core sexploitation movies, usually paired alongside two older films and screened for 99 cents.

This sort of triple-feature billing still packed a lot of movie houses back in the days before cable and satellite TV, VCRs, DVDs, DSL, HDTV, DVR, and whatever the newest BFD is.


Downtown's old grindhouse row now exists only in the memory of cinemaniacs old enough to recall a time when Jaws made you afraid of the water, Friday the 13th made you afraid of hockey masks, and Star Trek: The Motion Picture made you afraid of sequels.

Even the Balboa Theatre on Fourth Avenue was run by Miranda's company during its final operational decade, right up until the city acquired it via eminent domain and confiscated the keys in 1986, leaving the majestic building to rot for the next 20 years. At that time, Walnut was running several dozen movie houses in California, offering the same sort of lowbrow fare proliferating at drive-ins and urban grindhouse districts.

danny01 Projectionist Dan Whitehead worked at all of Miranda's local theaters for over 20 years, beginning around Thanksgiving 1972.

danny02 "Mr. Miranda was a quiet and energetic guy. We got to know each other during the many drinking parties we had at the main office and at the Hotel San Diego. He had a motto that he had engraved on his license plate frame -- 'work hard, play hard' -- and that's what we all did. You could tell he really loved show business and loved movies and that it wasn't just a way to make money for him."

miranda17 (Vince Miranda)

Vincent Miranda -- the son of a Portuguese fisherman -- was raised in Palo Alto, the son of Albert and Belinda Mattias. As a teen, his singing voice was said to be so exceptional that his nickname was "the Voice of Paly High." He worked as a soda jerk, busboy and waiter until, by his 21st birthday, he’d saved enough money to buy 21 acres of land in his hometown of Los Banos.

After serving as a Coast Guard cook in Hawaii, Miranda purchased a Huntington Park restaurant.

img006 (Miranda in his restaurant, Sept. 1964)

In 1961, hoping to boost business, he bought an adjacent movie theater. His first screening - Cat on a Hot Tin Roof and The World of Suzie Wong – only brought in $70. On a Saturday night, no less.

kat2 So Miranda instead screened The Nudist Story. That did the trick – soon, lines were forming even before the box office opened for business, with devotees anxious to see so-called “nudie cuties.”

He began eyeing other moviehouses, after he discovered that it cost no more to advertise multiple theaters than it does to advertise one.

Miranda's swarthy good looks, always-natty attire, and omnipresent grin greatly contributed to his charm. Thin all his life and relatively short at around 5' 4", he told friends that his suits, while purchased in top-flight shops, often came from the children's departments.

Though small, casual, and soft spoken, he would not have been perceived meek, such was the authority and assuredness he projected. Heavy smoking later took a toll on his dulcet voice, which grew coarser and more gravelly over time.

Miranda took on a partner, a man known as George Tate. Physically, Tate appeared almost the opposite of Miranda, of solid girth and with the aggressive posture of a junkyard bulldog, whether standing or seated. He was known for wearing finely made executive suits, hand tailored to fit his monolithic frame.

"Tate used to be a movie extra," says Whitehead. "They supposedly met after getting into a car accident with each other. The story goes that Tate had a theater and Miranda had a restaurant, and they had no money to cover the auto damage, so they just went into business together." Miranda and Tate were both considered the bosses at Walnut, though Tate was seen less by most employees.

miranda13 (Cabrillo “Open All Nite”)

Whitehead got to know Tate while training at the Cabrillo. "He had a silver tongue and could probably sell anything to anybody, almost like a snake-oil salesman. He probably could have made millions in religion. My feelings for Mr. Tate soured many years later, when the company was shutting down and Mr. Miranda was dead."

He credits Miranda for the local staffers' upbeat morale. "It was only because of him that the employees had anything at all. He gave us a retirement package, completely free, plus a vision-and-dental program. He put a few million of his own money into the company during slow times, and he wasn't afraid to roll up his sleeves and do real work. When we were getting ready to open the Bijou on Fifth Avenue [formerly the Savoy], he got down on his hands and knees and was scrubbing a floor behind the concession stand and cleaning out the bathrooms, while I was up in the booth installing equipment. Tate would never have deigned to do such a thing. He might stand at the door and take a ticket or two, but that's about it."

Though not generally known, Miranda and Tate were live-in lovers. For over a decade, they shared a house they purchased together from Mickey Rooney, in Encino, at 17340 Magnolia Boulevard.

They also shared a love for motion-picture exhibition, seeing an opportunity to gain a foothold in San Diego by buying or leasing downtown theaters in decline, beginning with the Cabrillo (leased) and then the Plaza (purchased). In the early '70s, several nearby houses were being run by Russo Family Enterprises (later known as El Dorado Enterprises), including the Tower, the Aztec, the Casino, and the Balboa. Miranda and Tate coveted all these locales (see "Walnut Properties" below).

miranda8 (Miranda cruising)

mir1 Miranda acted as Walnut's public face, frequently mentioned and quoted in the local press by theater critic Welton Jones (a close friend), while Tate was rarely seen or referenced. According to Whitehead, "Tate liked to stay in the shadows. He was always so secretive. There were those of us who wondered if it wasn't really Tate who actually owned the company, and Miranda was just a figurehead. The rumor was that Tate's real name was George Munton and he'd been in some serious trouble having to do with child molestation and couldn't legally own those X-rated houses. That rumor never went away and was told to me by two people who'd known him for many years."

Whitehead mentions someone ideally qualified to provide additional details about Tate's allegedly checkered past. "I'm in touch with Mr. Miranda's godson, Tim David," he tells me. "His mom worked for Miranda in a cafe he owned in his younger days. In fact, she was in love with him. Miranda became Tim's godfather at her request."

pussycattim2006 When I contact 41-year-old Tim David, he informs me that "Mom went into labor at Walnut's downstairs office at 5445 Sunset Boulevard. She and V.M. were working late as usual. He made Mom finish the filing prior to taking her to the hospital. Mom has told me I spent the first few months of my life in that office. She converted a desk drawer into a bassinet."

David's biological father was Miranda's half-brother, Robert "Bobby" Mattias, though he says, "V.M. was the closest thing to a father I ever had. He did not lead a life that would allow me to spend more time than I did with him. But he sent checks to support me every month of my childhood, spoke to me often with words of encouragement with school and life...He would come to my school in a limo."

David says the rumors are true about Tate's prison record and the Munton surname (a name that does turn up in legal proceedings related to Walnut's eventual dismantling). "I just called my mom to ask about this; she was there for all that and remembers it quite well. [She says] he was convicted of child molestation and served his time in a California prison. She can't recall which one, but she did remember he was released in late 1965 or early 1966."


Miranda and Tate wanted to be downtown's biggest -- if not sole -- grindhouse operators. Walnut purchased a 22-year lease on the Balboa and bought the Casino outright.


However, the Russos held on to the Aztec on Fifth Avenue, at least for awhile...

In 1973, two independent operators -- Charlie Smith and Wesley "Andy" Andrews -- purchased the property so desired by Walnut. Whitehead ended up quitting his job working for Miranda and Tate to spend a few years as the Aztec's daytime projectionist.


"The concession stand had a counter open to the public sidewalk," says Whitehead. "Andy and Charlie kept the snack bar stuffed with food and candy, and they even bought a pizza oven and served individual slices of pizza. They had chili for a while, and those wrapped sandwiches you heated in an oven. A lot of downtown hookers and hustlers used the Aztec concession stand as their diner."


(Aztec circa 1979: You can see the snack bar facing the sidewalk, which Walnut clerks ran from inside the theater - next door was a tiny porno theater, and next to that, just out of shot, was the Casino Theater)

The Aztec was also known for oddly mismatched double, triple, and even quadruple bills. "There were a few that played there that seemed out of place," says Whitehead, "but then, that was the charm of the place. Andy was a good merchandiser. A couple times, during major holidays, we would run five and six features. On those ocassions, there were not enough house reels and we had to run off the shipping reels, which made the reel end alarm bells inaccurate as the hub of the shipping reels was smaller in diameter than the hubs of the house reels. Good memories."

Walnut and Smith/Andrews - though competing theater operators - eventually warmed toward each other. "Even after I went to work for Andy at the Aztec, I spoke often with Mr. Tate at Walnut," Whitehead says. "I introduced Andy to [George] Tate in 1974, and they became fast friends. Andy leased the Commodore Hotel at Third and F from Tate sometime in the mid-'70s and moved his office there. He was always doing stuff for Walnut. In fact, Andy ran the Hotel San Diego for them for a while."

Other downtown inns snapped up by Miranda and Tate included the Clark Hotel and William Penn Hotel on Fifth and the Hotel St. James on Sixth.

Whitehead went back to work for Walnut as the chain's head San Diego projectionist in 1978. "I had a real mess on my hands. The head projectionist had done a lot less than he could have, as far as routine maintenance was concerned." He says the frequent post-shift "drinking parties" with Miranda resumed ("He really liked to drink").

Walnut finally managed to buy the Aztec Theatre, running it as a sister operation to the nearby Casino. The Casino, in the middle of the block and across from the Savoy Theatre (later Walnut's Bijou), was around a half-century old at the time. It was in decent repair, with a full-length balcony that was actually open most of the time.

"They ran a little restaurant built onto [the theater] called Loren's Q," remembers Whitehead, "and they had some delicious barbecue. They also served these teeny, tiny little hamburgers they called Q-burgers."

The Aztec also hosted occassional "World Premier" screenings, according to Whitehead. "The debut showings of two so-called 'Blaxploitation' features, Uncle Tom's Cabin (1976) and Dolemite (1975), were I think we billed as 'sneak previews,'" he recalls.

"At the time, they were 'exclusives' showing only at the Aztec. I can't remember anything about how it happened that they screened for the first time anywhere at the Aztec and neither can Charlie Smith - I just got off the phone with him.  It's most unfortunate that anyone who would remember, apart from Charlie and myself, are all passed away now.  Dolemite is in my Netflix queue, but Uncle Tom's Cabin will most likely never, ever be found or even available. It was a terrible movie." 

As for those and other "urban" features that tended to attract a racially mixed crowd, Whitehead says San Diego's Walnut houses were surprisingly trouble-free, at least compared to theaters in the chain closer to LA. "I don't recall there ever being any kind of racial issues of any kind, regardless of what kind of movies were playing. There may have been some words-push-shove incidents, but I honestly can't remember even any of those. I'm really glad you mentioned this 'cause I think perhaps we may have been a little bit ahead of the times. I remember when that movie Colors was released. The cops were prepared for all kinds of trouble, and I don't think there was any even then. All in all, it seemed that everyone really did 'get along' as it were."

sdmoviead10-18-72 Over at the Balboa on Fourth Avenue, Walnut used the grand olde girl to screen the same exploitative fare as its other grindhouses, marking what is to some an ignoble period for the one-time crown jewel of downtown theaters. "I was always fascinated by the Balboa and was determined to do my best by her," says Whitehead. "The first thing I did was go over every inch of her, from the roof to the basement."

The Balboa's tile dome, set four stories above the entrance alcove, contained one of two huge fans that circulated the house's air, with the other located in the basement, just to the right of the orchestra pit. The basement included a cedar-lined room where a furrier had operated for a time.

b113 The theater's original Morton Wonder Organ was no longer in place during Walnut's tenure, having been removed and taken to the nearby Fox Theatre (eventually renamed Copley Symphony Hall).

Among the Balboa's most distinctive features were the waterfalls on either side of the room. "They were in enclosed chambers," says Whitehead. "The one on the left had a little entrance door you got to from the hotel, while the one on the right had no entrance unless you went and got a ladder. The switch that turned them off and on was in the projection booth. I hooked it up to the automation system so they'd turn on when the curtain closed and turn off as soon as the show started. The chambers filled automatically with a ballc-ck assembly filling up the pool at the bottom, just like in a toilet tank. A recirculating pump fed the water up to the top, where it cascaded back down."

miranda11 Sometime after Walnut leased the building, a pipe in the second basement burst. "Nobody thought it fed anything that the theater used any longer, so the plumbers just cut it off. A couple weeks later, we realized that the waterfalls weren't working and the supply line had been cut. There was no way the company would spend the money to fix it. From that time until the theater closed, I used a ladder and hose to fill up the waterfalls myself, about once every week in the winter and twice a week in the summer."

sdspring1977 (Downtown 1977)

As with many theater stages, the Balboa's had a "doghouse" on top, with windows that opened up in the event of fire, to suck out heat and smoke. "It was an 80-foot drop from the catwalk grid under that doghouse to the stage floor," says Whitehead. "On top of the doghouse was a huge water tower. One day, a work crew came in to take that tower off from the roof. They were your usual bunch of know-it-all a--hole construction types. I told them the water supply to that tank was still live and that they'd better turn it off before they started cutting. They didn't listen. A little while later, the water started shooting up in the air and drenched everything. It looked like a tugboat coming into a harbor. I was laughing so hard that I couldn't get my breath."


("Erotica" - plus a Road Runner cartoon?!)

Whitehead says one of the best things about working the Balboa was access to the balcony, closed to the public for years (mainly because the exits led to the closed-off hotel hall). "I dragged an overstuffed chair and a couch up to the front row of the balcony. My brother David, who later managed the Balboa, helped me lug them up there. It was, literally, the best seat in town, centered to the screen horizontally and vertically. Just a wonderful place to watch a movie."


The all-but-abandoned balcony was just one of the Balboa's backstage remnants of a vanishing era. "There was an old sign behind where the stage was, instructing silence on account of radio broadcasts," says Whitehead. "I've always wondered which local radio station it was. I'm betting it was KOGO, but no one in management knew. I think the broadcasting was probably done from a room up on the top floor of the hotel, which has a ceiling window and looks like a classic studio."


Out in the seats, the Balboa was at that point so infested with rats that, in quiet movie moments, you could hear them scurrying amongst the treasure trove of discarded snack bar confections. "There was a time when a lady jumped to her feet screaming because a rat had run across her foot," recalls Whitehead.

Some other patrons were more scary than scared. "I recall a creep who had secreted himself in the janitor's closet in the women's restroom and was peeking out to see what he could see," he says. "There was another guy who used to rattle the plastic from his candy, just to irritate those around him. There was a huge, fat Mexican guy who sold newspapers on the street that we had to ask to leave more than once, because he smelled so bad."

b24 Despite the descent into skid-row schlock, which mirrored Hollywood's own, the Balboa still frequently screened to packed houses, as when Star Trek: The Motion Picture debuted in late 1979. "Walnut had just bought a Dolby stereo sound system, and they rushed installation just for that movie," says Whitehead. "I put a strobe light up in the pinnacle on top of the Balboa's roof dome, and you could see it all the way up Fourth Avenue. Getting that tiny light on top of the dome wasn't easy. I had to climb up it from the outside. Had I fallen, I'd have gone straight down into the huge fan that exhausted air out of the house."


threedee5 The Balboa also briefly flirted with 3D screenings. "As far as movie theatres are concerned, the very best 3D used two projectors locked in time with each other by devices called selsyn motors," says projectionist Dan Whitehead. "Cinerama used the same setup. Both projectors had to project the same frame of film at the same time. If one of the reels broke, blank film had to be inserted so that the frame count was the same on both reels. The screen had to be a silver screen. The Balboa has a silver screen that was flown up above the white screen."

"The 3D shown at the Balboa had both the 'negative' and the 'positive' frames in one frame of film. There were two types of that kind of film: side-by-side and top-bottom. I can't remember what type was used at the Balboa. The 3D lens was literally spit into two seperate elements in one lens. It cut the light output of the lamphouse almost in half and showed a rather dim picture."

Miranda's legitimate stage venue, the Off Broadway Theatre, at Third and F, earned him civic accolades and social recognition for bringing heavyweight Hollywood talent downtown in a series of high-caliber productions.

Built in 1913, the venue was originally known as the Lyceum, and then the Liberty, before becoming the Hollywood Burlesque in 1936. The 1948 film Hollywood Burlesque was shot in the bawdy hall -- once dubbed "San Diego's most famous dirty little secret" -- featuring well-known striptease dancers (including the iconic Lili St. Cyr) and various vaudeville acts.

Owner Bob Johnson had started at the Liberty as a concession clerk; he ended up with a house on Fort Stockton Drive, a Cadillac, a box at the Del Mar racetrack, and his own thoroughbred Hollywood Theatre Stables, plus he ran the popular downtown hangout Bob Johnson's Sports Palace. Business at the Burlesque died down as porn became more prolific, and the theater closed in February 1970.

Vincent Miranda negotiated a $3 million deal to purchase around two square blocks downtown, including two hotel spaces, several retail shops, and the old Hollywood Burlesque. He refurbished the theater exterior and interior, spending around $250,000 to remodel and install red carpeting and wallpaper.

The resultant 417-seat playhouse was renamed the Off Broadway Theatre and reopened March 16, 1971, a day officially declared by the City "Off Broadway Day." The debut production was Anything Goes, featuring movie star Dorothy Lamour and Sterling Holloway (best known as the voice of Winnie the Pooh).

The opening was attended by Miranda's parents, flown in from Palo Alto. From there, he hired various producers to stage ambitious musicals like Guys and Dolls, as well as hosting touring productions of shows like You're a Good Man, Charlie Brown.

Around 1972, Miranda began turning up around town -- and in L.A. and NYC -- arm in arm with actress Rose Marie, best known from The Dick Van Dyke Show. They'd met through her publicity girl, who was also working for Miranda when he offered to fly Marie and several others to San Diego to attend an Off Broadway production of Cactus Flower.


(Miranda & Rose Marie)

In her book Hold the Roses, Rose Marie describes their first encounter. "This man met me at the parking lot of the airport and hurried me to the gate," she says. "He was about five foot four, dark hair, kind of wiry, about 45 years old, kind of Italian looking. It turned out he wasn't Italian. Martha Raye was at the gate, Audrey Christy, Harry Guardino, and lots of actors. There were about 30 of us...He was very pleasant, charming, had a good sense of humor, and he was short! But I liked him."

She describes their growing relationship with mild allusions to her frequent date's homosexuality. "He was a great sport and, as I always said, the last of the big spenders," she says. "He was great to talk to, and he loved the idea that we were going out together. He took me home and we said good night. No kiss, no nothing. I relaxed."

PussPlaybill1 "We became very good friends. No romance, and I was grateful for that. We liked being together, and he loved the idea that everybody knew me and came over for autographs. He was out with a celebrity. Best of all, we went to all of the big affairs, the $1000-ticket dinners, like the annual Thalians Ball affair and the St. Jude Hospital affair that Danny Thomas always did."

"We were getting to be known as a couple. Little did everybody know that we were like brother and sister, but we had fun. Once in a while, a kiss on the cheek, but that's all...and again, I was grateful. I didn't have to worry about a thing."


Marie was photographed on Miranda's arm at the Off Broadway's first-anniversary luncheon in March 1972, sponsored by the San Diego Downtown Association and held at the U.S. Grant Hotel. Former mayor Frank Curran presented Miranda with a plaque from the association, while Deputy Mayor Floyd Morrow gave him a plaque from the city, in recognition of the theater revitalizing downtown. A photo appeared with an article in the next day's San Diego Union. "His publicity man, Don Haley, kept our names in the columns," recalls Marie.

miranda7 Miranda was reportedly thrilled at this mention in a 1972 issue of L.A.'s Daytime TV magazine: "Rosie's back and Vince has got her! Yep, after bidding boyfriend Vince Miranda bye-bye, Rose Marie must have decided it's worse to have loved and lost, because she didn't waste much time before she went right back...now he's back to playing 'Ring Around the Rosie' and the not-so-new twosome are cozying up again in their favorite hang-out, the elegant, very 'in' La Scala restaurant."

Miranda had a photo in his office, of him at the wedding of Rose Marie’s daughter (held in his L.A. back yard). The photo shows him with Rose Marie and Richard Deacon (of the Van Dyke show), Peter Marshall, and Paul Lynde. The photo is signed by Marie “Love, your fag hag,” an apparent reference to the quartet of Hollywood homosexuals flanking her.

sammydavisconcert (Miranda at Sammy Davis Jr. concert)

In 1974, Miranda and Tate purchased the Hotel San Diego for $1.4 million.


Both men maintained hotel suites of their own, as did a man named Don Wortman, who had known Miranda in the Coast Guard.

Wortman produced stage shows for Miranda at the Off Broadway, including that venue's final show before it closed in 1975, Take Off.

kat6 According to San Diego Union theater critic Welton Jones, that show "featured Georgina Spelvin, who had starred -- if you want to call it that -- in The Devil in Miss Jones. To give you some idea: she was backed by a chorus line of boys in jockstraps. Leather jockstraps. It was dreadful. It brought out the worst in everyone."

PussTB1 Wortman's hands weren't exactly idle, though. He and Bill Bellville opened the Broadway Dinner Theater in 1974, in the Hotel San Diego's basement Continental Room. However, a conflict with Miranda caused Bellville to move south along Broadway into a renovated bowling alley where expenses sank the project for good five years later.

By 1977, Wortman was running Miranda's Backstage Restaurant, in the Commodore Hotel at Third and F, adjacent to the Pussycat on Fourth. Restaurant patrons had to walk through the Pussycat's lobby to use the Backstage restrooms.


"The Backstage was opened by a friend of mine named Frank Clancy," explains Whitehead. "Frank spent many long, hard hours getting that place opened, but then something happened. Wortman said something to Miranda that got him all stirred up and got Frank fired. Wortman took the place over and acted as if it was all his idea...I never did like Wortman. He had a heavy black beard and would talk out of the side of his mouth. He always made me think of a pirate."

Frank Clancy's version of the Backstage was actually the restaurant's second incarnation. Clancy recalled the circumstances in a July 2008 email to Dan Whitehead. "I seem to remember that Tate told me that it had opened when the theatre was legit [but] there were problems and Walnut closed it. When I opened it, the theatre was [screening] Deep Throat, [it] was I believe '75 or '76. They needed to get the restaurant re-opened, so that they wouldn't lose their liquor license. If you recall, I opened one day a month during the setup period, to keep the license active. I'd do all of the cooking, waiting, everything that day."

Whitehead picks up the story. "Frank Clancy literally put the [second] Backstage together from nothing. He ordered and oversaw the installation of everything and hired the first crew. I was with him the day he bought the sound system for the place from Dow Sound City, on El Cajon Boulevard. I remember it clearly. It was a powerful Sony with Bose 901 Series II speakers. I stole the entire system after the place closed for good and it belonged to the city, and I had it for years too, but that's another story."

"After the place [Backstage] got opened, business was just terrible. The cast and crew were very discouraged and were going to walk out. Frank took them all in the kitchen and served drinks on the house and gave them a pep talk to cheer them up; he was always very good at that kind of thing. Someone told Don Wortman about it -- I'm betting it was Charlie Combs, who later married [former Hollywood Burlesque owner] Bob Johnson's daughter DeeAnn. Don Wortman got Mr. Miranda all riled up about Frank giving liqour away to the employees for free - never mind that this kept them from walking off the job - and Mr. Miranda fired Frank himself."


Miranda also let Wortman take charge of redecorating the Hotel San Diego. Columnist Welton Jones recalled the redo last year in a Reader article about the hotel. "When MGM auctioned off its props from Culver City, Don [Wortman] bought a lot of their stuff. His bed came from there. He said it came from the set of Cleopatra. He was always buying things, changing things, rearranging things...every room was different. The lobby alone and the chandeliers came from an old Hollywood movie theater. The front desk came from a pharmacy in Spain. The bar was straight out of World War II. He even had four packs of wartime Lucky Strike Green framed on the wall...Those guys were so alive, Wortman was amazing, covered with tattoos, smoking a cigarette, those dark eyes drilling into you. Those guys really had balls. Don't get me wrong: I'm not gay, but I felt something for the two of them."

One of Wortman's former employees Tom White recalls "I worked my first professional job as the technical director at the Broadway Dinner Theatre which was run by Don Wortman. I did a lot of work in Don's apartment, hanging pictures, building shelves etc. The trivia question we always asked was, 'Is there a blank wall in Don's apartment?' He was an odd man who either liked you or did not like you. As a straight man I was a fish out of water in his world and did all I could to avoid any one on one situation. I ended up learning a lot from the experience. I once spent 5 days straight working with no sleep to prepare for an opening night. It was grueling and exciting at the same time. Many of the performers from the Broadway Dinner Theatre worked at the Backstage Restaurant. I remember well going through the Pussycat to get to the restrooms. My girl friend at the tie worked there and was part of the near revolt."

Miranda's failed Off Broadway theater ended up sublet to a group headed by Don Wortman. The playhouse was renamed the Pussycat Cabaret and began showing X-rated features. In 1979, Wortman and attorney Jim Schneider talked Miranda into reopening the theater under its original 1914 name, the Lyceum, with a musical extravaganza called "The Lyceum Follies." It soon went back to X-films.


According to longtime hotel employee Alice Faye, "Wortman and Mr. Miranda were both f-gg-ts. Mr. Miranda used to pick up Marines. Used to introduce them to people as his nephews. Mr. Miranda had lots of nephews."

She says Wortman was murdered in 1981. "[He] picked up some guy and took him home. Back to his sister's house, is what I heard. Can you imagine? His sister comes home and finds her brother between the bed and the wall with his neck broke. You talk about rough trade."

After Wortman's death, Miranda moved his own room from the sixth floor down to Wortman's former suite in room 264.


Miranda's godson Tim David tells me, "V.M. took me to the hotel all the time. It was quite a thing to walk in with him; he was a king there. The 'Presidential Suite' is what he called his room. It was very gaudy. I remember lots of bearskin and cut-glass panels. He and Tate would have their 'sailor parties' in that suite a lot. I would have to stay in the suite a few doors down during those."


Miranda installed former waitress Donna Martin as the hotel's resident manager. "Donna was quite a character," recalls Whitehead. "She and Mr. Miranda loved to drink. I remember drinking with them one time when she was waxing eloquent on the fact that God was actually a woman. One morning for breakfast, I went down to the Country Kitchen with Tom Wimbish [manager of the Cabrillo, Plaza, and Balboa theaters]. Mr. Miranda and Donna joined us, and they had both lost their voices from drinking so much the night before. Mr. Miranda was trying to figure out if it was the vodka or the cigarettes that did it."


Miranda's sterling civic and social rep seemed unassailable -- for a while, anyway -- even after it became common knowledge that he was buying an increasingly large stake in the Pussycat Theatre chain of adult movie houses.

The chain was founded by longtime film exhibitor Dan Sonney and sexploitation filmmaker Dave Friedman. The duo bought an abandoned 40-year-old, 400-seat theater on Fifth and Hill in L.A., remodeled it, and opened the doors as the Pussycat Theatre in March 1967.

Young George Tate had run the theater in a previous all-age incarnation.


Vince Miranda bought a 50 percent share of the Pussycat in 1968, immediately remodeling and redecorating each theater, which then included around two dozen California houses. "He fixed them up so nice," marvels Friedman, "that almost nobody was ashamed to be seen walking into a Pussycat. Which was a big change from the old 'raincoat' crowd...I can't say [Miranda] and I ever got along well, but he was definitely a showman who knew how to bring in the rubes."

miranda18 (Miranda “bringing in the rubes” ---- by riding an elephant!)

Though operated under the Walnut umbrella, Miranda took great personal interest in the Pussycats. He outfitted each theater with crimson carpeting, velveteen fixtures, decorated walls (usually including selections from his own huge collection of painted nudes), and crystal chandeliers with golden fittings.

If an X-movie's poster wasn't particularly attractive in the marquee showcase, he'd commission and produce his own colorful, relatively "classy" display posters, shipped to managers chainwide to use as their public face in communities increasingly -- surprisingly -- receptive to hosting an X-rated theater or drive-in.


According to Rose Marie, "He took pride in running the Pussycat Theatres. Although they were porno theaters, he ran them like a business. They were cute little theaters that were kept in shape. Sometimes when we were out, he would stop at one theater or another and make sure everything was being run right. I met everyone at the office, including his cousin Jimmie [Johnson, an eventual Walnut co-owner]."


(Miranda with Deep Throat star Linda Lovelace)

Miranda later purchased a majority stake in the Pussycat chain, in a partnership with Johnson and Tate. At its peak in the '70s, Pussycat operated 47 California houses, most of them classical theaters that had faded.

On December 21, 1973, Deep Throat star Linda Lovelace even put her hands in cement outside the Pussycat Theater on Santa Monica Boulevard, for a porn version of the cement shrines on the sidewalk near Grauman's Theater. Photos from the event appeared in hundreds of mainstream publications, all over the world (Later, John Holmes and others would leave their cement impressions). Around the same time, Lovelace introduced Elton John at the Hollywood Bowl, with members of the Beatles in the audience! Suddenly, nearly everybody had heard of Pussycat Theaters, mainly by virtue of Deep Throat's meteoric rise in public awareness.

(A brief aside - I have on tape an episode of Rowan and Martin's Laugh-In, with a Throat "gag" I still can't believe got onto the air across America. Dan says "Hey, Dick, did you know a Supreme Court Judge is viewing a copy of Deep Throat, to decide whether or not it qualifies as obscenity?" Dick replies "Yow, here cum da judge!")

(Another aside: It's a fact that the Sears chain briefly carried - in its catalog! - a T-shirt reading "I choked Linda Lovelace," until someone spoiled the fun by telling them what it really meant)

Walnut's growing profile, however, also made them visible targets. Though Deep Throat played Hollywood's Pussycat for around ten years and made Miranda millions, it sparked dozens of legal battles and mired him in numerous public-relations snafus, police actions, criminal trials, and civil lawsuits (see People VS Walnut, later in this story).


Statewide, he faced obscenity charges over 50 times, in around two dozen municipalities, but was only convicted once, of a reduced "public nuisance" charge.


(Miranda at the opening of the San Francisco Pussycat)

The Los Angeles Times began refusing Pussycat ads in 1975, notwithstanding that Miranda had spent around a million dollars advertising Pussycats in their paper the previous year.


For awhile in the late '70s, the military was banned by the U.S. government from entering downtown porn theaters. X-houses were cropping up all over south of Broadway and soon spread to nearby and outlying areas of San Diego (even the Capri, North Park, and Academy theaters showed porn for awhile). Military MPs would regularly walk through theaters looking for soldiers and sailors violating the ban, which was later expanded to cover the entire county.


Around San Diego, Walnut came to operate four 'Cat-houses: downtown, in National City, in El Cajon, and in Escondido.


Downtown's Pussycat on Fourth Avenue -- open from noon-5:30 a.m. daily -- was notorious for sidewalk posters that assaulted passersby with graphic (not quite explicit) images from triple-X features with titles like Talk Dirty to Me, Taboo, The Budding of Brie, and A Scent of Heather.


(4th Ave. 'Cat)

The decor was mildly seedy, if era-apropos: faded and cracked tile offset by chrome-etched mirror panels and lit by flashing red and purple lights.

mirandathroatad5-29-77 (5-29-77)

Whitehead recalls opening Deep Throat at the downtown 'Cat, where the film would screen almost continuously over the next five years. "I worked for three days straight, because the day projectionist, Michael Knight, was a college student and afraid of getting busted; he later became management. Those were 18-hour shifts, back to back. After the third day, I literally couldn't go on any longer and went home and crashed."

"That was the night the vice squad came in and confiscated the print."


Walnut's head of public relations, Don Haley, was staying in town and prepared. "He brought a second print over from the St. James Hotel -- the cops could only take one print until a court decided if it was obscene -- and then he proceeded to call all the radio and TV stations in town. When I got to work the next night, people were lined up way down the street and around the block, and it stayed that way for a long time. It was so busy that we were answering the phone in the projection booth, because the concession stand and box office were literally too swamped to do it." Walnut battled the city over this and other Pussycat matters for years.


Walnut's stake in the Pussycat chain only included the California operations. Most estimates indicate several hundred other Pussycats did business elsewhere, until video lowered the boom on all walk-in theaters, especially the X-houses.


According to Miranda's godson, Tim David, "V.M. and Tate never owned or had anything to do with Pussycat outside of the state. I remember asking V.M. about it one time. He really couldn't have cared less what they did outside of the state. Jimmie Johnson and I spoke about it last year. He told me people really wanted V.M. to trademark the name. He just never did. Weird, huh?"

pussycattimessquare If you look at who was running the famed NYC Pussycat, a possible clue emerges regarding why Miranda was unwilling to make a federal case of the matter. According to the Meese Commission report, mob boss Mickey Zaffarano ran the New York Pussycat from an office across the street connected to the theater via a secret underground tunnel. During one FBI raid, Zaffarano reportedly tried to elude agents using the tunnel, only to collapse from a massive coronary and die. Mickey's brother Johnny Zaffarano owned or ran several porn shops and massage parlors in San Diego through much of the '70s.


Miranda did apply for and receive a trademark for the Pussycat logo itself, with its festive masked playmate leaping through a lighted oval, ringed on marquees by flashing, chasing light bulbs. This has proven a major factor in Pussycat-related litigation that continues to this day, but more on that in a bit.

adultery Erotica writer and filmmaker Earl Kemp was living in San Diego in the '70s, working with Miranda on various projects, including a 1971 X-rated film financed by Miranda called "Adultery For Fun and Profit."

"Miranda and I found ourselves thrown together from time to time socially and business wise," he says in an essay posted at efanzines.com. "Vince was gay, but you would never know it, he was such a specialist with hetero films. He was also one of the greatest hosts I've ever known, right up there with Hugh Hefner. His parties, lavishly produced-sumptuous buffets, ice sculptures, margarita fountains, musicians, dancing, endless open bars --and opulently arrayed, were legendary, complete with plane loads of recognizable Hollywood types flown in to San Diego just for whatever occasion pleased him at the moment. As easy as that, Adultery for Fun and Profit was born."

pussycatcardscan0002 By December 1979, around 30 adult bookstores and movie houses operated within a 16-square-block area downtown. The city targeted those adult merchants with eminent domain proceedings intended to condemn the properties, so they could be refitted to suit the resurgent Gaslamp Quarter, whose acreage would be added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1980.


However, the city's "Redevelopment Agency" didn't stop there. It also named around 75 non-adult businesses and individuals in an eminent domain lawsuit filed December 31, 1979. The hit list included Walnut's Commodore Hotel, as well as the Buccaneer Lounge, the Equitable Trust Company, Fourth Street Arcade, the Horton Hotel Grand, Joe's Barber Shop, the Right Spot bar, Security First National Bank, Terminal Auto Parks, the Western Union Telegraph Company, and even San Diego's Department of Internal Revenue.

pustwo5KeatingBuilding (Keating Building)


According to court documents, Miranda filed his own lawsuit a few weeks later, for "unlawful detainer," over being locked out of his Cabaret Theater -- formerly his Off Broadway legit stage theater -- then screening porn (447901, Vincent Miranda, et al. v. James Schneider). Though he never regained control of the Cabaret, he was eventually awarded a $100,000 judgment, which the city had to pay due to "intentional property distress, lost income, and lost public goodwill."

sdmoviead51 As downtown San Diego became increasingly seedy, the company's grindhouse theaters began opening at noon and closing at midnight. "They were finding needles in the alley behind the Casino," recalls Whitehead. The 1979 film Hardcore shows downtown at its Sodom and Gomorrah peak, with George C. Scott stumbling through wall-to-wall porno shops in search of information about his missing porn-star daughter. He makes his way down Fourth and Fifth Avenues, dodging hunchbacked junkies and drooling perverts at every step.

"There are some fantastic shots of 1979 downtown San Diego [in Hardcore]," notes Dan Whitehead. "Places I'd all but forgotten. Great shot of the Pussycat on 4th. Also a fantastic shot of the Aztec."

The 1979 film Hardcore shows downtown at its Sodom and Gomorrah peak, with George C. Scott stumbling through wall-to-wall porno shops in search of information about his missing porn-star daughter. He makes his way down Fourth and Fifth Avenues, dodging hunchbacked junkies and drooling perverts at every step. Peter Boyle (see pic above) shows Scott an 8mm hardcore featuring Scott's daughter, and off Scott goes to California in search of her…pics below from Hardcore show Miranda’s Savoy Theater/Cinema X, across the street from his Casino Theater on 5th Avenue, AND the 4th Avenue Pussycat.



b1 You can see the Cabrillo and Plaza during their final days in the 1980 Marty Feldman film In God We Trust, partially shot downtown. "They took one of the box-office ladies named Olivia and put glasses and a wig on her," recalls Whitehead. "I think I ruined one of their shots. The Cabrillo paged me with an emergency, and the film crew tried to keep me from going in. I just pushed past them and went in anyway. As far as I was concerned, there was an emergency, and Walnut was paying my check, not them. A--hole me, ha?"

SDmovie4-13-77aSDmovie4-13-77b        (4-13-77)

Both the Cabrillo and Plaza were closed in 1982 (for more on their history, see separate article below about Walnut's individual theaters).



pussycatcabrillopostcard (Cabrillo on lower left)

"Talk of the city taking over the properties had been around for a while," recalls Whitehead. "I had to deal with people from the city from time to time, as they came to inspect the properties they were basically stealing. Eminent domain operates under the 'color of law,' but it's theft, pure and simple. No private citizen can operate in such a fashion, so it shouldn't be legal for the city government to do it."

TowerTheaterAdJune1968 "I never had anything but cold, utter contempt for the parasites that made up the San Diego City Council and the CCDC [Centre City Development Corporation]. They were and probably still are smarmy, self-righteous tax parasites. Anytime I could cause them any trouble whatsoever, no matter how small, I went out of my way to do so.

sdmovieadpussycat2-19-69 "One time, the CCDC sent two architects to inspect the Balboa, so that they could declare it earthquake unsafe and make it easier to steal. These guys were in their late 50s or early 60s, and I made them go through that entire building, from the theater to the hotel, and the stores. I took them through every crawlspace and airshaft that one could fit into. We started at 9:00 in the morning and didn't finish until that afternoon. By the time we were done, they were literally drenched with sweat and hardly had any strength left at all. God, I hated those motherf-ck-rs."

"The guy I had the most dealings with was a runty little weasel named Dave. One time, he browbeat Angie, the Filipino gal who was temporary manager of the Balboa. She was one of the most kind, gentle, sweet little gals I've ever known. At Mr. Tate's orders, I had copied a set of keys to the Balboa and the Pussycat for the CCDC's little Napoleon a--hole. The key that worked the door to the Balboa's dome didn't work, and this creep verbally browbeat Angie and told her to get that door open or he'd have it knocked down. She paged me in tears, and I called him and told him to deal directly with me only from that point on. Then I made him wait a few days for a new key."

pussycatclock Next, time was up for the Fourth Avenue Pussycat. "On the day we removed all the equipment," remembers Whitehead, "I was instructed to give a guy from the city the keys when we were finished. So I called and he was there in just a few minutes, as if he'd been waiting right beside the phone or something. I had removed all the identification from all of the keys, just to make his job difficult. When he put out his hand for the keys, I deliberately let them fall to the floor, turned my back on him, and walked out the door without a word. Yes, that was small and petty, but it felt good to do it."

pussycatvinceandjayfinebergsandiegonewspaper (Miranda & Jay Fineberg)

In 1981, Miranda purchased the lease on a theater on lower 5th Avenue, across from the Casino and Aztec theaters, which would become Walnut's Bijou Theater.

According to a City Lights article in the Reader by Paul Krueger, "Forget those clean new six-plex cinemas with their computerized projectors and convenient parking lots. Give Vince Miranda a beat up south of Broadway movie house marred with graffiti and littered with empty wine bottles. He'll spend $180,000 to renovate the building inside and out, and if you give him a ten year lease, he'll even promise not to show a single x-rated film. He did this last year at the Bijoiu..."

(It's worth noting that, by 1980, all Walnut's downtown projection systems WERE computerized.)

gaslamp1979agaslampfunland (Downtown late '70s/early '80s)

Walnut appointed two new partners in late 1981, when Miranda's cousin Jimmie Bert Johnson and Walnut associate Jerome Knell were jointly named company president. Johnson was formerly head of the advertising department and company vice president (his mother Ada Johnson managed the Torrance Pussycat). Knell had been a part-owner of the Pussycat on Ocean Boulevard in Long Beach. Miranda and Tate still ran the day-to-day operations.

Around this time, a man named Jonathan T. Cota entered the picture at Walnut. In short order, he seemed to wield as much authority as Miranda and Tate. According to Miranda's godson Tim David, "Cota just appeared one day around 1982 or 1983, never to leave the scene. He was a shoe salesman at Florsheim shoes in Beverly Hills. He was sleeping with Tate, and he was a third or fourth cousin to V.M. He must have been very talented at what he did...I remember his first big 'gift' from Tate was a house in the Hollywood Hills."


David says Miranda disliked Cota. "V.M. was an incredible judge of character, and he hated the sight of Cota and saw him for what he was right away. A leech." Cota's growing involvement with Walnut operations was partly related to Miranda's gradual withdrawal from management, due to health problems later diagnosed as cancer related.

sdmoviead3-9-79 According to David, "As V.M. became more sick, Cota slowly moved into the house that V.M. and Tate had on Magnolia in Encino. I spent summers there in my teens, and it had always been a beautiful, antique-filled home. Walnut Acres they called it, an old walnut farm with neighbors like the Jacksons and Tim Conway."

Dan Whitehead says, "I never liked Cota from the first day I saw him slither into the office. Once he became Tate's squeeze, Mr. Miranda didn't like that. One time, Cota came to the office with Tate for an after-business-hours drinking party. After Tate left with Cota, Mr. Miranda said, 'I wish he wouldn't bring Cota around here, he's such a f-g.' I almost fell off my chair."

In May 1985, Miranda -- a lifelong heavy smoker -- was battling lung cancer in an L.A. hospital. "My Aunt Susan spoke to V.M. several times about my future with Walnut," says David. "Something must have been going down at the end, because V.M. called her and said he was planning on getting married! This is very strange, due to the fact he and Tate had been live-in lovers for decades."

Vince Miranda died June 3, 1985. "He denied the fact that he was dying up to the end," says David. "The last time I saw him was at Walnut Acres...he was bald from the chemo treatments but insisted that he was in remission and was going to be fine. He kept it a secret from all of us."

"To this day, I haven't seen V.M.'s will, and neither did his mom, Grandma Mattias," says David. "She was the one who told me Tate and Cota were keeping everything. I had gold coin collections and accounts in my name from when I was a child. All was taken and just disappeared. Remember, I was just a pup, and poor Grandma was an old lady. We were no match for sharks like Tate and Cota."

sdmoviead7-15-72a David says Cota quickly moved in with Tate at Walnut Acres in Encino. "The last time I was there, after V.M.'s death, the house had been completely 'Cotafied.' The guy has no taste whatsoever; it looked like something off the set of Miami Vice. Horrible."

Jimmie Johnson filed injunction requests and lawsuits against Tate and Cota, attempting to regain control of Walnut and Pussycat assets, with very little success. "Grandma Mattias never got anything [from Miranda's estate] either," says David. "It was all funneled back to Tate and Cota."


To be fair, there may not have been a lot of Walnut left, at least once the IRS hit Miranda's estate with a federal tax lien of $6,047,760.00. Walnut properties all over the state were sold, leased, or traded away, with many real-estate holdings being handed over in lawsuit judgments. Several claims against the estate were connected to ongoing litigation dating back years.

Walnut Properties and/or company principals were served with over 100 civil lawsuits filed between 1973 and 2005, the majority related to Pussycat locales (see People v. Walnut, later in this story). Interestingly, one tax lien mentions as a DBA "George Munton Tate," confirming "Munton" as one of Tate's AKAs.


In all, around $30 million in Walnut assets were liquidated, lost in judgments, or "gift deeded" to others over the next 15 years. Top candidates for liquidation included the increasingly problematic Pussycat theaters, which had installed video-projection equipment to no avail. Between shrinking attendance, home video, and increasing civic and social intolerance, the Pussycat dynasty was nearly dead.

Pussycat1984TWO Tate must have seen a future for Pussycat, however. After recovering from a stroke (neither his first nor last), he registered for sole ownership of Pussycat Theatres, Inc., in February 1986, listing the corporation's primary service as "photofinishing laboratories" and its secondary service being "motion picture production."

miranda11 The Balboa closed in the first week of April 1986, with over a decade remaining on Walnut's original lease. The final double feature on its screen was "April Fool's Day" and the Stephen King film "Silver Bullet" (based on his book "Cycle of the Werewolf"). "I don't remember much at all about the last day," says Whitehead. "This may sound silly, but it was a sad, even traumatic, experience. I loved that house very much; it really hurt to leave. My office was there, and I ordered all the projection booth parts and supplies from there, and everything for my department was delivered there."

balboatheater (Abandoned Balboa)

In 1986, the City of San was trying to pry loose Walnut's hold on the 20,000-square-foot, two-story building that had been called at various times the Rambo, the Paris, the Menear and - most recently, at the time - the Washington Hotel (Walnut also owned the William Penn Hotel, the Maryland Hotel, and the St. James Hotel).


The Centre City Development Corp., under an agreement with the Gaslamp Quarter Council, acted as the intermediary between would-be buyers and willing or reluctant sellers, such as Walnut Properties. "There's a different story for every single property here," Pamela H. Hamilton, the project manager for CCDC's Fourth Avenue project, told the San Diego Union-Tribune (7-27-86), which pointed out that the CCDC was better known for condemning properties, demolishing the existing buildings and selling the land to a willing developer, original owners be damned.


Hamilton said she wanted to rid the Gaslamp of "undesirable" or "nonconforming" tentants, without spending thousands of taxpayer dollars to relocate or buy-out the businesses. Working with Walnut's property manager, Ronald Nasland, she got the company to commit to spending $300,000 to $500,000 to fix up the Maryland to new Gaslamp specifications. The exterior was to be restored to its 1920 appearance, and the second-floor residential hotel rooms would be rebuilt and fitted with new electrical, plumbing and heating systems.

Gaslamp Quarter architect Milford Wayne Donaldson prepared the plans for the Washington Hotel's restoration. "These people had been totally resistant to doing any kind redevelopment of their properties," Donaldson told the UT. "Mostly, they were in the business of buying and selling properties. Unfortunately, they found themselves backed up against the wall because they were in a historic district...I found that, after I had a chance to sit down and document the values, they became very excited. They're anxious to work with us to return their buildings [to vintage quality] and become a part of the community. This has been a long educational process."

In 1987, Walnut (under George Tate's stewardship) sold the Hotel San Diego for $6 million to Dr. Leonard Glass, whose purchase also included a 99-year ground lease for the entire block. Glass (who also took over the El Cajon Pussycat Theater) later told author Michael Lesy, "This place was done up like a New Orleans bordello. It was a glorified flophouse full of antiques...Miranda's partner said they spent $2 million on all the couches and chandeliers and bric-a-brac. Maybe the IRS believed them, but I don't. We got rid of it all except the phone booth and the window in the lobby."

Theater critic Welton Jones recalled: "I went to one of the last [hotel] auctions. I was standing there looking at a lamp...One of the auctioneers came up. 'You know anything about this stuff?' he said. I lied. 'No,' I said...I didn't know whether to laugh or cry. I walked away. It was as if everything those two guys had done, everything they'd tried to do, even who they were, had all vanished into thin air."

Says head projectionist Dan Whitehead, "Around then, my paycheck bounced for the first time. It wasn't long after that that I was let go."

walnutpropertiesstationary Walnut Properties filed Chapter 11 bankruptcy actions in June 1994, listing liabilities of $17.7 million. For some of these legal proceedings, Walnut officer Barry Hartsfield was listed as Tate's trustee/conservator. Tate had sought Hartsfield's help after suffering health setbacks that included a stroke that sidelined him for the better part of 1994. The Chapter 11 bankruptcy actions were converted to Chapter 7 actions in August of that year. Then:

"I received a call from Grandma Mattias, V.M.'s mom," says Tim David. "She never said hello, she just started talking, and she asked, 'Do you want the good news or the bad?' "

"I replied, 'The good, I guess.' "

"She said, 'The b-stard is dead! George Tate died on the dentist chair. Now do you want the bad news?' I said 'yes' and she replied, 'All the money is gone, he spent it all.' She hated Tate, too."

In 1998, Cota and Barry Hartsfield (Tate's one-time estate conservator) -- as the Tate Group, Inc. -- tried launching a hot-dog chain called Red's, with their first locale on the corner of Hollywood and Western in L.A. Patterned after Tinseltown hot-dog hotspot Pink's, it failed to take off. Walnut Properties -- by this time solely owned by Cota -- renewed its bankruptcy application in 1999, in proceedings that continued through 2001.

PussycatSign Cota threatened to file a lawsuit against pop performers the Pussycat Dolls in 2004, for infringing on the trademark he claimed to own on the Pussycat Theatre logo. Not that the Dolls were using a similar logo, but Cota claimed their name traded on his own "well-known, world-famous mark."

The suit appears not to have been pursued, after the U.S. Patent Office declared the Pussycat trademark to be "abandoned."

pussycatmug Cota launched a website awhile back, www.pussycatoriginal.com. "He's trying to sell product with a b-stardized version of the Pussycat logo," says Tim David of the slightly altered catwoman design gracing various T-shirts and mugs on the site.

The Pussycat Theatre on Santa Monica Boulevard in L.A. is still open and being run by Jonathan T. Cota. The chain's former flagship house switched to gay porn, as the name was changed to the Tomkat...


...and then the name was changed to Studs.


The original Pussycat sign was recently reinstalled. According to David, "Cota wasn't using the old oval at all, the plexiglass had been reversed and left up there to rot for years. I wrote and spoke to him about getting the sign, to renovate and keep it for myself. Three weeks after my inquiry, the old marquee was back up."

Cota -- whose voice is on the theater's answering machine -- has not responded to interview requests.

Former Walnut theater manager Merlin Thompson (Casino, Aztec, etc.) STILL works downtown, and at Horton Plaza no less! He can be found most days manning the Art Tix booth, in the shadow of the monolithic mall which ended up supplanting the Cabrillo and Plaza theaters.

In sad news, Tom Wimbish passed away at the end of April, 2008. He managed the Plaza, Cabrillo and Balboa Theatres for Walnut in the '70s and '80s. My condolences to his family and many, many friends ----

pussycattattoo We'll give the last word (for now) to Vince Miranda's godson Tim David: "You know, I have a six-inch-square version of the Pussycat logo tattooed on my shoulder. The name Miranda is on my calf as well. I guess it's my way of remembering Vince."


(Porn at the Mann Theater in August 1973, courtesy myspace.com/sandiegocinerama)



THE AZTEC THEATRE, 655 Fifth Avenue: Situated on the corner of Fifth and G, the 500-seat theater was part of a structure originally called the Bancroft Building, opened in 1905 as a meat market but remodeled and rechristened the California Theatre in 1919.

The Fox theater chain bought it in 1936 and changed the name to the Fox Aztec, remodeling the façade with plans by pop architect Clifford Balch. The venue later became known simply as the Aztec.

The theater's corner location afforded added space for multiple banks of movie posters, displayed in interconnected tiers of glass showcases wrapping around the building and lining the entranceway all the way up to the turnstile at the door.

aztecstadiumseats Inside, there was no real lobby to speak of, and the theater hall had ascending layers of floor levels rather than a traditional balcony, referred to in the trade as "stadium seating" with two levels laid out at a continuous sloping angle instead of with risers.

The Fox theater chain bought it in 1936 and remodeled its façade, changing the name to the Fox Aztec.

According to Donald H. Wolfe's 2006 book The Black Dahlia Files, in December 1946, soon-to-be-murdered actress Elizabeth Short was found sleeping at the Fox Aztec by a clerk, after a screening of The Al Jolson Story. Short had arrived in San Diego broke and couldn't afford any other place to sleep. The clerk invited Short to stay at her home over the next couple of weeks, until the actress made her way toward L.A. and into history. Her mutilated body was discovered January 15, 1947.

Miss Short’s visit to the Aztec, however, may not have been to see the Jolson film after all – a local theater history blogger at myspace.com/SanDiegoCinerama has found the below ad, showing what WAS playing at the Aztec the week before Short went to L.A.

Strangely, and somewhat disturbingly, the movie Betty Short almost certainly saw was actually THE BLUE DAHLIA. Betty Short historians, take note (as far as I know, this odd twist to the Black Dahlia story was completely undiscovered, until SanDiegoCinerama’s research surfaced recently).


The venue later became known simply as the Aztec and was run by Russo Family Enterprises (later called El Dorado), until purchased in 1973 by A&S Theater Corporation, owned by Charlie Smith and Wesley "Andy" Andrews. The duo had previously run a 16mm X-rated house called the Little Art at the southeast corner of Third and E Street, where they reportedly earned the money to buy and remodel the Aztec.


Smith and Andrews reopened the Aztec on January 23, 1974, screening a triple feature that included Paint Your Wagon and The Friends of Eddie Coyle, with Robert Mitchum. The duo also operated a snack bar facing the sidewalk, as well as a game room separated from the concession stand by a wrought-iron grill and with its own door to the sidewalk (many assumed the arcade was part of the theater itself).

Aztec1979 According to Aztec projectionist Dan Whitehead, "Andy and Charlie's motto on the west reader board of the marquee read 'It's first run 'til you've seen it!' This was actually the brainchild of the night projectionist, Henry 'Hank' Le Clair."

Walnut purchased the theater in the late '70s.


THE CASINO THEATRE, 643 Fifth Avenue: Opened in 1913, this movie house originally had a small restaurant built onto it, the Casino Café. Walnut Properties purchased the building from the Russos in the early '70s. By 1978, the Casino's adjoining enterprise was a porno emporium called the Foxy Theatre -- run by Bob Clark -- which screened mostly silent X-rated 8mm and 16mm film loops.


After Walnut sold the buildings, the Casino and Aztec theaters closed, reopened, and then closed again a few times through the '80s, under different management and often as X-rated houses (the Aztec briefly served as a Pussycat locale).


(Sidewalk in front of the Casino and part of the marquee, as seen in the 1979 movie A Force of One, starring Chuck Norris)

CasinoTheater2008 Having been boarded up for good, the buildings were purchased for $250,000 by the Santa Monica development firm CIM Group LLC, who by 2000 had converted the entire 15,000-square-foot area into a two-story shopping complex.

CasinoThtrToday The locale currently houses a Ghirardelli Soda Fountain and Chocolate Shop, an Urban Outfitters branch, and a sportswear store. Elements from the Aztec can still be seen in Urban Outfitters (exposed brick walls and steel framework), and a revamped version of the old Casino marquee now serves as the main signage for Ghirardelli's.


THE BALBOA THEATRE, 850 Fourth Avenue: This venue on the southwest corner of Fourth and E was built in 1924. Designed for stage and screen, it featured a single-level balcony, gold metallic wall paint, a gilded ceiling with ornate chandeliers, and a sizable orchestra pit. The original seating capacity -- 1513 -- commemorated the year Vasco Nuñez de Balboa arrived in San Diego, and whimsical 28-foot-tall vertical waterfalls were built into the walls on either side of the stage. The waterfalls operated at full force during intermissions.

The building housed vaudeville acts in the 1920s, until shifting to motion picture screenings. A neon marquee was added in 1930 and the name changed to El Teatro Balboa, to feature Spanish-language movies and stage shows, with usherettes often dressed in faux-bullfighter gear. In the '50s, a new movie-style marquee was installed, as the Balboa began showing more motion pictures. Downtown's heavy military population made sexploitation fare very popular, and the marquee constantly touted movies starring the likes of Bardo, Diana Dors, Connie Stevens, and Jayne Mansfied.


Grandiose by any standards, the Balboa fell into hard times and disrepair in the '50s, until it was almost demolished for a parking lot in 1959.

Russo Family Enterprises bought the building, spending $125,000 to remodel it in 1964. The City of San Diego placed the Balboa on its local Register of Historical Places in 1972, and it was being run by the blue-chip Fox chain until leased to Walnut in the mid-'70s, in a deal negotiated by George Tate.

bal1 Walnut squeezed additional profits from the Balboa by renting out portions of the building. Recalls head projectionist Dan Whitehead, "There was a tattoo artist for many years who called himself Doc Webb -- his shop was originally down on West Broadway, but he later moved it into the Balboa, where those storefronts were on the Fourth Avenue side of the building. The Mark Shoe Repair shop was owned by two Greek brothers who moved it from the Yuma Building [631 Fifth] into the Balboa building."


(Yuma Building, and next door to the Yuma, circa 1979/1980)

The City filed eminent domain proceedings to acquire the property at the beginning of 1980, ultimately succeeding. The Balboa closed April 6, 1986. It was still boarded up in November 2002, when a $10 million restoration plan was finally approved by a City Council committee.


In 2008, the Balboa was open again and hosting both stage plays and musical performances.



b126 THE CABRILLO THEATRE on Plaza Street, facing Horton Plaza's fountain, opened in 1918. Miranda leased it in the early '70s -- his first San Diego theater -- using the locale most often to exhibit low-budget, second-run action and horror flicks, whose exploitative titles looked fabulous on the oversize marquees.

"We screened The Texas Chainsaw Massacre at the Cabrillo the week it was released in 1973," recalls Walnut head projectionist Whitehead. "The house was packed for all but the earliest and latest showings. It made so much money that the studio jerked it out of our second-run houses and put it in the first-run theaters."


THE PLAZA THEATRE, also on Plaza Street, opened April 13, 1913. Miranda purchased it in the early '70s from Preferred Theatres, Inc., in a package deal that included the El Cajon Theater (later converted to a Pussycat).


Under Walnut, the Plaza began showing soft-core and sexploitation movies, not altogether out of character for a building that had once housed brothels in its second-story hotel. The hotel part of the building was demolished in 1966, but under Miranda's stewardship, the Plaza's gloriously tacky façade became, like its next-door sister, the Cabrillo, just as tarted up and all-accommodating as any lady of the evening.


The Plaza (renamed the Owl for a while) and the Cabrillo remained open through late 1982. Both theaters were demolished to make room for the Horton Plaza Shopping Mall. A United Artists seven-screen movie theater opened in Horton Plaza in 1985. In 1997, Pacific Theatres built a $15 million, 15-screen megaplex theater, the Pacific Gaslamp at 701 Fifth Avenue at G Street near Horton Plaza.


OFF BROADWAY/CABARET, 314-316 F Street: Built in 1913, the venue was originally known as the Lyceum, and then the Liberty, before becoming the Hollywood Burlesque in 1936. The 1948 film Hollywood Burlesque was shot in the bawdy hall -- once dubbed "San Diego's most famous dirty little secret" -- featuring well-known striptease dancers (including the iconic Lili St. Cyr) and various vaudeville acts.

Owner Bob Johnson had started at the Liberty as a concession clerk; he ended up with a house on Fort Stockton Drive, a Cadillac, a box at the Del Mar racetrack, and his own thoroughbred Hollywood Theatre Stables, plus he ran the popular downtown hangout Bob Johnson's Sports Palace. Business at the Burlesque died down as porn became more prolific.

"The decision to close the Hollywood in 1970 was difficult but inevitable," says author Jaye Furlonger, in her award-winning paper San Diego's Bygone Burlesque: The Famous Hollywood Theatre. "In a 1969 San Diego Union newspaper article entitled 'Burlesque House Stripped of its Glory,' Johnston claimed never to think about retiring from the theatre, but he openly lamented burlesque as a slowly dying art. Business was terrible, [his wife] Frances was at home most of the time suffering from the arthritis she’d developed as a dancer, and Johnston was now in his seventies (though he still also ran the Palace Bar next door). Sadly, but not surprisingly, the Hollywood folded in less than three months, after its 11:00 p.m. show on February 9, 1970. The official word was that Johnston wanted to devote as much time as possible to his first and only grandchild, Robert Johnston, Jr. Other reasons surely included his advancing age, the death of burlesque, and pressure from the City of San Diego and developers who aimed to turn San Diego’s “tenderloin district” into valuable commercial real estate."

Vincent Miranda negotiated a $3 million deal to purchase around two square blocks downtown, including two hotel spaces, several retail shops, and the old Hollywood Burlesque. He refurbished the theater exterior and interior, spending around $250,000 to remodel and install red carpeting and wallpaper.

The resultant 417-seat playhouse was renamed the Off Broadway Theatre and reopened March 16, 1971, a day officially declared by the City "Off Broadway Day." The debut production was Anything Goes, featuring movie star Dorothy Lamour and Sterling Holloway (best known as the voice of Winnie the Pooh).

Next up was Plaza Suite, with Dana Andrews and Pamela Britton, and then a musical, Forty Carats, with Lost in Space's Angela Cartwright. Later productions included Rose Marie in Guys and Dolls and Bob Crane (Hogan's Heroes) in Beginner's Luck. (Crane was doing the same play in 1978 when murdered in a Scottsdale AZ hotel room).

puss3 Miranda closed the Off Broadway in 1975, in the midst of various disputes with City officials over this and other Walnut downtown properties. Walnut later converted the space to an X-rated movie house (as the Cabaret, and briefly as a Pussycat). It was closed by the city in 1980 under eminent domain proceedings.

Miranda sued and won a $100,000 judgment from the city but in the process gave up his stake in the property. It was briefly renamed the Lyceum again -- as well as operated as a porno house called Cinema XXX for a time -- until the building was demolished in 1985 to make way for the Horton Plaza parking garage.

For a detailed - and fascinating! - history of this theater when it was still the Hollywood Burlesque, I direct you to an award winning article by local historian Jaye Furlonger, which includes photos of the venue, of vaudeville and burlesque cast members, and of owner Bob Johnson and family: http://www.sandiegohistory.org/journal/v51-1/pdf/2005-1_hollywood.pdf


The Crest, the Star, the Palomar, and the Towne: In the early '80s, Walnut also ran these four theaters in Oceanside, purchased from North County movie-house and drive-in impresarios the Siegel Brothers. "The Crest and Star were absolutely beautiful theaters," recalls Walnut projectionist Dan Whitehead. "They were built deluxe in every sense of the word. They both had stereo sound systems -- magnetic oxide-track stereo; there was no such thing as an optical stereo sound track when those houses were built -- and movable masking, which is the black fabric around the edges of the screen and two drapes in front of the screen. Both theaters had title drapes, which means they parted in the middle, immediately in front of the screen. A grand drape in front of that would be pulled up toward the ceiling, 'waterfall' fashion. The waterfall drape at the Crest was pure, high-quality velvet, and it weighed a ton. The motor that ran it burned up one time, and it took myself and two projectionists to pull it up."

b36 Miranda outfitted the Star with projection equipment purchased from the Campus Drive-In, at the corner of El Cajon Boulevard and College Avenue, after it closed in 1983. The Palomar ran X-rated movies. "I was told the Palomar used to be a dance hall and the projection booth was added later when someone changed it to a movie theater," says Whitehead. "I believe it. The only way to get into the booth was to climb up a straight iron ladder, which was no easy task for a technician carrying a heavy toolbox. There was a dry cleaning plant right next door, and the booth always reeked of dry cleaning fluid." The Oceanside theaters became early casualties in Walnut's eventual shutdown.



At its peak in the mid-'70s, Walnut ran 47 Pussycat Theatres around the state. The Pussycat at Hollywood Boulevard and Cherokee in L.A. leased out its basement for what became a legendary rock club, the Masque (opened August 1977). Frequently raided by police, the venue hosted early gigs by Black Flag, the Ramones, Wall of Voodoo, and the Go-Gos.

"They [club operators] broke the old-fashioned elevator by trying to take a cow down in it," recalls Walnut projectionist Dan Whitehead, "and later there was a murder in the place. They left the police chalk outline of the body on the floor and painted it Day-Glo orange, to make it permanent."

Deep Throat played at the Hollywood Boulevard Pussycat for nearly ten years, earning (according to Variety) $11,000 weekly during peak seasons, until the theater's throat was finally cut on December 12, 1981.


At the Pussycat in Torrance (formerly the Stadium Theater), tenth-grade dropout Quentin Tarantino checked tickets and manned the snack bar in the late '70s. "I was up there several times on service calls," says Whitehead. "Mr. Miranda's aunt, Mrs. Ada Johnson, managed this and the Lakewood Theatre at the same time. She was a great lady, and I was very fond of her. She didn't take any sh-t from anyone, anywhere, anytime, ever."

puss7 The Lakewood Theatre in Lakewood was an old single-screen house that Walnut turned into a twin theater. "They ran the number-one screen as an all-age general release and art house, and the number-two screen as a Pussycat," muses Whitehead. "Talk about a nightmare. They kept it that way for a long time."


In San Diego, one early Pussycat regional manager was Yugoslav immigrant Gojko "Greg" Vasic, who'd later borrow money from his parents to launch his successful F Street Bookstore chain. "Vasic was the longest lasting of Walnut's district managers," reveals Whitehead. "He still worked for Walnut after he opened his first F Street store across the street from the Cabaret [formerly Miranda's legit Off Broadway]. Mr. Tate was very fond of him. He was certainly a strange character. His family name was actually spelled Vasich, and they used to have an egg ranch in Ramona. His uncle delivered their produce to many of the downtown eateries."


peep151 Like Miranda, Vasic's vision involved the mainstreaming of porn. He eventually expanded into running nearly a dozen F Street Bookstores, including shops in El Cajon, Miramar, Chula Vista, Escondido, North Park, and Leucadia (all but the last including peep show booths).

b104 The chain became so popular that, for a time in the late '70s, a costume-clad F Street penguin mascot showed up at area events to pass out flyers and peep-show-booth tokens.

puss1 National City's Paris Pussycat, at 903 National City Boulevard, was originally known as the Bush Theatre and then the National Theatre. The venue opened in February 1928, with a live production of Victor Hugo's Les Miserables. It was renamed the Aboline Theater around 1950, until becoming the Paris Theater in 1961. It was converted to an X-rated Pussycat house in 1967.

sdmoviead9-4-68 "I personally ran the Paris Pussycat booth many times," says Whitehead. "The projection booth was originally the balcony. In the late '70s, that was the very first booth where Walnut tried a homemade automation system. Each feature was on one big reel. Projector number one had the main feature, and projector number two had the second feature. The lamp-houses were Peerless Magnarc carbon arc lamps, which had been converted to xenon. The upper reel -- the supply reel -- had a motor to rewind the feature, and the take-up reel had a separate motor to drive it, because the reel would become too heavy for the soundhead take-up drive to manage. I installed a completely new automation system, sound system, projector heads, sound heads, lamphouses, and rectifiers."

Walnut withdrew from managing the Paris Pussycat in the mid-'80s. Former Aztec Theatre owner Wesley "Andy" Andrews leased the property from Walnut and kept it open under the Pussycat name until 1999, after all but the last few California 'Cats had closed.


National City purchased the property for $1,066,000, and Mayor George Waters padlocked the theater for good in July 1999. It was later bulldozed to make way for an intended student-resource center dubbed the University Education Village.


At the Escondido Pussycat on Grand Avenue -- in a building that formerly housed the Ritz Theatre -- the manager was arrested in 1973 over a showing of Deep Throat. Though Walnut successfully fought the obscenity charges, theater neighbors and city officials put enough public pressure on the locale to force its closure in 1976.

It was later reopened and renamed the Bijou, and then the Big Screen Theater, offering family fare again. It was briefly known as the Ritz again in February 1998, though it only managed to stay open for nine days this time before closing again. Periodic attempts are occasionally made to revive this house.



In 1972, California officials were using the "Red Light Abatement Act" as a toilet brush to clean out porn shops and theaters from the municipal landscape.

On November 17, 1972, Deep Throat opened at the Pussycat Theater at 7734 Santa Monica Boulevard in Hollywood, despite several theater owners being arrested for showing the film at other locales across the U.S. On December 18, Deputy Sheriff Ralph Kenealy wrote the theater a citation for screening Throat, naming Vincent Miranda and theater manager Stephen Hagen. Soon, this Pussycat was the first in the chain to be raided and relieved of its Deep Throat prints, which were under contention as being obscene (and possibly illegal).

On September 17, 1973, the trial jury boarded a red fire truck and traveled to the Hollywood Pussycat, to view the film for themselves. Trial Judge Leonard Wolf gaves a press conference in the theater lobby

The Buena Park Pussycat at 6177 Beach Boulevard was raided by police, initiating a case that went all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court, to be argued (and decided) in 1975. Hicks v. Miranda (422 US 332) named Miranda as owner of the land the theater was on, with Pussycat and Walnut as DBAs, while Hicks was the Orange County District Attorney.

As stated in the Supreme Court summary, "On November 23 and 24, 1973, pursuant to four separate warrants issued seriatim, the police seized four copies of the film Deep Throat, each of which had been shown at the Pussycat Theatre in Buena Park, Orange County, CA. On November 26, an eight-count criminal misdemeanor charge was filed in the Orange County Municipal Court against two employees of the theater, each film seized being the subject matter of two counts in the complaint."

The OC Superior Court held a hearing, viewed the film, took evidence, and declared the movie to be obscene. Then, in June 1974, a three-judge court issued its judgment and opinion declaring the California obscenity statute to be unconstitutional, which the Supreme Court agreed with. Three of the four prints were later returned, and Miranda and his employees eventually beat the criminal charges.


Buena Park Pussycat neighbor Donna Bagley filed a lawsuit against Miranda and Walnut in 1974, demanding closure of the theater. Her suit claimed she was "significantly offended, outraged, and has suffered shame, embarrassment, and emotional distress as a result of the public scandal caused by the continuous and daily presence, advertisement, and public exhibition of patent hard-core pornography." She also said the theater attracts "immoral persons," including "criminal elements, undesirables, deviates, and dropouts."

According to a mid-'90s study about L.A.'s Pussycat on Santa Monica Boulevard, commissioned by the group Concerned Women for America, between 1977 and 1994 "the Los Angeles Police Department made 2000 arrests for lewd conduct on the premises. The conservative estimate is that every arrest required four hours of police work for two officers at a minimum of $55 per hour for each officer. This does not include the substantial costs attendant on review by a supervisor, prosecution, court proceedings, and probation."

xx14 Walnut Properties ("a real estate holding and investment company") filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in June 1994, claiming liabilities of $17.7 million. The filing listed George Tate as Walnut's president and sole stockholder; the 'Cats are never mentioned by name.

Creditors with the largest claims included First Fidelity Savings and Loan of San Diego ($2.08 million), Queen City Bank in Long Beach ($2.38 million), and Topa Thrift and Loan in Century City ($2.8 million).

However, the bankruptcy petition was ruled incomplete. The court's summary stated, "The debtor has been involved in several lawsuits causing further extraordinary expenses. The comments... indicate a creditor who obtained a judgment against Walnut has attempted to tie up the debtor's assets, disrupting the ability to operate his business."

The Chapter 11 bankruptcy actions were converted to Chapter 7 actions in August 1994.

Walnut's bankruptcy cases were discharged/dismissed in February 1996. Shortly thereafter, the company was hit by the IRS with a $182,294 tax lien, but the company tried to keep at least a few plates spinning.

In 1998, Walnut borrowed $341,000 against mortgages in San Diego. The following year, it borrowed another $120,000 in San Luis Obispo and took out a $350,000 mortgage loan in L.A. In March 1999, the company renewed its bankruptcy application, with the process finally completed in December 2001.

In 2001, around $15 million in Walnut assets all over the state (mostly properties) went to litigants Charles Perez and Kathy and Michel Harouche, in a "trustee's deed" covering various judgments obtained against Walnut.

Walnut (Jonathan T. Cota, president) tried to save the company's former headquarters at 5445 West Sunset Boulevard in July 2001, by transferring ownership of its second floor from Walnut Incorporated to the George Tate Living Trust. The entire property ended up being transferred in April 2002 to TK Theaters, Incorporated, in lieu of a $1,110,000 debt.

In December 2002, Walnut lost a judgment of $2,643,333.00 to Ralph and Nancy McLaughlin in Porterville, CA, over unpaid rent and damages relating to a property Walnut had kept tied up for a proposed multiscreen theater since 1992, through Tate's death and the multiple bankruptcy filings.

The company was still being divvied up in tax sell-offs in 2006, when the city of Baldwin Park obtained a Walnut property at 4024 East Pacific Avenue for $20,355 (assessed value $107,374).


To read a detailed history of just the Pussycat Theater chain, with hundred of pages and photos NOT seen in above "Before It Was The Gaslamp," check out this Reader feature "When Cathouses Ruled California" ------


And if you’re interested in a complete and comprehensive history of all the San Diego drive-in theaters thru the years, here’s another Reader cover story, “Field of Screens” ---

COMING SOON: “Midnight Movies – San Diego’s Cult Movie Culture 1965 - 2005”

PLUS: "Bigscreen San Diego - They Kill Giants, Don't They?"

NOT TO MENTION: "Long-Gone: San Diego Concert Venues 1910 to 1999"

Several of the old theater photos and some of the historical info about them come courtesy www.cinematreasures.org, one of the finest and most comprehensive websites for movie theater lovers.

Many of the vintage San Diego movie ads come courtesy of myspace.com/sandiegocinerama.

For a detailed - and fascinating! - history of the Off Broadway when it was still the Hollywood Burlesque, I direct you to an award winning article by local historian Jaye Furlonger, which includes photos of the venue, of vaudeville and burlesque cast members, and of owner Bob Johnson and family:




puss64 Deep Throat director Gerard Damiano was once asked why he sold his stake in Deep Throat to men with reputed Mafia connections. He replied "Do you want me to get my legs broken?"

There have long been rumors about the Mob controlling all Deep Throat screenings for a number of years, taking a huge cut of the proceeds but offering chosen theaters a lot more than mere exclusivity (ie "protection," from both rivals and city officials).

puss63 So how did Vincent Miranda land a seeming exclusivity to Deep Throat in California? The Pussycats weren't "connected"

One-time El Centro theater operator Steven Lane posted an essay at http://losangeles.broowaha.com/article.php?id=1363, which mentions Miranda and infers some sort of conspiratorial network controlling his access and proceeds RE screening Throat. I shared some of his quotes with Walnut insiders, who disputed much of Lane’s account. However, the guy was in the theater biz with Miranda, and he has a few things to say about his experience in the Throat/Walnut clan that bear listening to with an open mind -----

In 1973, Lane operated the Crest and the Fox theaters, in downtown El Centro, as well as a theater in the nearby town of Brawley.

“So one day, I was having lunch with my friend Vince Miranda, close to his office on Western Avenue [Hollywood]. Vince and I were both involved in a ‘charity’ that we each held near and dear, The Variety Club International…Vince was a real character, but a true gentleman.”

“At the time of our lunch, the phenom porn flick, Deep Throat, had just opened in some theatres across the U.S. and Vince was telling me how he had grossed over $100,000 in one theatre in Hollywood, in a week. That was an astounding figure for any theatre, much less a porno palace.”

“I wanted ‘in,’ a phone call was made, and a few days later a brown paper bag with $10,000 in greenbacks was given to a certain ‘gentleman’ at a coffee shop in Hollywood. The terms of the proposed ‘engagement’ were laid out very clearly.”

The gentleman reportedly told Lane "Yoouse, get one print of the film. The $10,000 is a deposit against 50% of whatever yoouse gross in your theatre in El Centro. One of our ‘associates’ will be at the front door ‘helping’ you count the patrons as they enter…If the cops grab the print, it costs ya $2500 to get a new one, if the cops throw you in jail and take the print, it's on yoouse....once you have earned the guaranteed deposit, you pay our ‘associate’ 50 cents on the dollar every night."

Lane prepared to open Throat in downtown El Centro a week later. With only around 36 hours until the screening, he says the town’s police called him with this message:

"Steve, I just want you to know, that if you attempt to show that trash in our city, you and your manager will be arrested within five minutes of the start of the film. We will seize the film and you WILL spend, at the very least, the weekend in jail. I have in my hand, a warrant executed by the county judge---Plain and simple, that is what is going to happen."

This put Lane in the position of either losing his $10,000 deposit and $2,500 for the confiscated print, or going to jail, which could be far more expensive. He instead chose a third option – he moved Throat to another theater run by his company, in nearby Brawley.

puss66 “On Friday morning,” he says, “we simply put Deep Throat on the theatre marquee and called the radio station to let them spread the news.” Despite some ambiguous threats from Brawley city officials, according to Lane, the screening went on as planned that Friday evening.

“I personally drove the print down to Brawley so that if there was an arrest it wouldn't be an employee,” says Lane. “I knew it was all good, when I got in range of KROP and heard the news announcer telling its listeners ‘I am standing out in front of the Brawley Theatre, with two hours to show time and the line is already down to the Western Auto store.’" (A distance of about two blocks)

“The film played for 5 weeks and, when we did the math later, we discovered that over five times the listed population of the city of Brawley had crossed the threshold into the forbidden land of porn.”

Walnut projectionist Dan Whitehead has doubts that Miranda (or his partner Tate) ever worked directly with organized crime figures. "They both were in love with money - Mr. Tate in particular - so I can't imagine them willingly sharing it with anybody. Of course, they may have had no choice. I just don't know, and am sure I never will. When [future F Street Bookstore founder] Greg Vasic was the district manager for Walnut, he used to deliberately let people think there was a mafia connection. I don't know if it was either for some percieved 'prestige' on his part, or if it was to make people leave him alone. That, also, I'll never know."



by JAS


I spent my first night in San Diego sleeping in the back row of the Cabrillo Theater.

In that pre-Gaslamp, pre-multiplex downtown of 1979, half a dozen wonderfully eclectic – if mildly disreputable – late night movie houses operated within a few blocks of each other. Each grindhouses was a colorful oasis, plopped down in the middle of a seedy urban sprawl perfectly suited to the sailors on shore leave and porn aficionados that comprised much of its foot traffic.

A couple of bucks got you a double or triple bill, screened ‘round the clock in cavernous single-screen movie theaters harkening back to Hollywood’s golden age, rich in cinematic history and replete with big wide aisles and accommodating balconies.

plaza22 At the time, the Cabrillo was one of two all-nighters (the Plaza being the other) facing Broadway from the south side of Horton Plaza park. I’d just arrived on the left coast courtesy of Greyhound, nineteen years old with armpit length dark hair, wearing a sleeveless Led Zep T-shirt and stone washed jeans and carrying a knapsack towards what looked to be the center of town.

sdmoviead3-30-56six I remember walking an unnerving gauntlet of middle aged men who pulled over in their cars to ask if I needed “a ride,” “something to eat,” “a place to stay” or “20 bucks.” When I reached the grassy plaza with its anachronistic fountain, street preachers and unspeakable restrooms, I encountered a Hare Krishna, head shaved except for a small ponytail, who told me in one long run-on sentence of the eternal glory of lord Krishna and about a nearby temple where I could sleep and eat for free if I wanted.

This sounded pretty good to a hungry kid fresh off the bus from rural New England with not a lotta duckets in my pockets and no idea where to go or what to do next.

 But then I glanced past Zippy the Pinhead’s dandruff-free shoulder and spotted the Cabrillo, bathed in the flickering rainbow glow of a thousand faux-Vegas neon flashers, its facade plastered with multi-tiered film posters, the marquee fired up with enough candlepower to confuse planes landing at nearby Lindberg Field.

b10 b12 As if in a hazy dream of my own fancy and construction, I was inexorably drawn toward that oasis of hypnotic lights, spurred on to even greater haste by the chimerical promise emblazoned across the marquee - “Bruce Lee Triple Feature.”

 This, I soon found, was typical fare at the Cabrillo and the Plaza. Same for the Aztec and Casino theaters a few blocks away on Fifth Avenue. Action, horror and softcore sexploitation movies, matched with two or three older films and sometimes packaged as theme-specific “marathons” - a day of Clint Eastwood westerns or four “Planet Of The Apes” films shown back to back, for instance, the sort of lowest common denominator marketing that still filled a lot of moviehouses back in the day.


All four businesses were operated by Walnut Properties, a company specializing in second-run theaters. During the early '80s, Walnut also ran the historic Balboa Theater on Fourth and E Street, as well as an X-rated moviehouse just down the same block, the Pussycat.

The day after my all-night kung fu-a-thon (some of which I slept through), I found a place to live at the Palms Hotel on 12th and Market, paying $70.00 a month for a leprechaun sized windowless room with barely enough square footage to fit a twin size mattress - I had to open my door and step into the hallway to get out of bed.


(I took these pics of the Palms Hotel 25 years apart – 1979 and 2004. In the late ‘70s, it was across from a DeTox center and thrift store – today, it’s across from condos and the trolley runs past it down 12th)

While ostensibly job-hunting downtown, I became a fixture at Walnut’s theaters, catching at least two or three triple-features a week. I mentioned to the manager of the Casino, a short Filipino guy named Freddie Bantug, that I was looking for a job and he hired me as an usher, ticket taker and snack bar clerk.

At first, I mainly worked the Casino, at 643 Fifth Avenue in the middle of the block, and at the Aztec, which rounded the southeast corner at G Street. Already a half-century old at the time, the Casino was in decent repair with only partially threadbare carpet in its spacious lobby and fresh paint covering what little wall space wasn’t taken up by posters of “coming attractions.”

In the auditorium, most of the seats, while oft-repaired, were intact, with seat cushions tenderized to perfection by decades of happily planted derrieres. It had a full-length single-balcony that was actually open most of the time, unlike at other all-nighters where they’d been declared unsafe by the city and/or where insurance failed to cover balcony-related claims.


Originally, the theater had a small restaurant built onto it as well, the Casino Café (see above). 

However, by the late '70s, the adjoining enterprise was a porno emporium called the Foxy Theater where a guy behind mirrored glass slipped you a ticket to see X-rated 8mm and 16mm silent film loops continuously screened in an airless room full of folding chairs and several furtive men seated in a way that put as much distance between them as was physically possible in the confined space.  


On the corner of Fifth and G, the 500-seat Aztec Theater was part of a structure originally called the Bancroft Building, opened in 1905 as a meat market but remodeled and rechristened “The California Theater” in 1919. In the thirties, the name was changed again, to the Fox Aztec and then eventually just Aztec. Its corner location afforded added space for multiple banks of movie posters, displayed in interconnected tiers of glass showcases wrapping around the building and lining the entranceway all the way up to the turnstyle at the door.

The posters promoted the current double or triple bill, next week’s coming attractions, “sometime in the future” attractions that may never actually play the Aztec (if the poster was particularly cool, like, with lots of blood or cleavage) and, just for the hell of it, maybe what’s playing down the street at the Casino, Plaza or Cabrillo. Permanent letters on the front of the marquee proclaimed "First Run Till You've Seen It."

Inside, there was no real lobby to speak of, the seats were decrepit and cramped and there were ascending layers of floor levels rather than a traditional balcony so it had a much less “old fashioned” feeling than the Casino. And it was more prone to trouble, for some reason. Perhaps something to do with the claustrophobic atmosphere and a tendency to specialize in back-to-back slasher flicks.

Not to mention endless screenings of Cheech And Chong’s “Up In Smoke,” which always brought out a crowd who, while doubling our snack bar sales, tended to change the air quality of the theater in a way that undercover police (but never fellow patrons!) objected to.

xx44 The same ticket takers and clerks worked all the downtown theaters, wore the same red uniform tops with black trim and dark pants, and some of us spent shifts covering each other’s breaks by walking from locale to locale. Management was identical at each place, we swapped the same prints between different theater projectors and all the Walnut-run operations shared the same aging, tacky, low rent, held-together-with-chicken-wire-and-glue porno vibe, whether you were trying to avoid sitting in someone’s ejaculate at the Pussycat or taking in a James Bond marathon up the street or around the corner at one of our (only slightly) more respectable theaters.

xx43 Movies screened around the clock, or at least nearly so. I soon noticed patrons who showed up just about every day – aimless, jobless and often homeless, seeming to subsist on little more than (real butter) popcorn, candy, coffee and soda or whatever they’d snuck in under their clothes, sleeping in the back rows and sometimes even bathing in the men’s room sink unless asked to leave or when the theater closed for cleaning.

sdmovieads10-15-75 They’d return a few hours later, with or without fresh clothes, to sit through the same movies again and again, day after day, often migrating from theater to theater. My boss Freddie called these guys “the regulars,” and by that he meant they were at the theater regularly, not that they were regular people, because there’s nothing regular about a guy like, say, “Wolfman.”

Wolfman (that’s what everyone called him, and what he called himself) was a little over six feet tall, pasty complexion, the front of his hair shaved into an Eddie Munster “widow’s peak” and hirsute to the point where it could be said he had a full-body beard.

As if he weren’t distinctive looking enough already, he filed all of his front teeth into sharp, spiky fangs, giving him a fierce demeanor that scared people, even – especially – when he smiled. Wolfman’s monthly SSI check never seemed to cover the rent at even the lowest priced flophouses. I don’t know what qualified him for SSI, he didn’t seem particularly disabled, physically or mentally. Well, maybe mentally, as things turned out.

I don’t think he drank, at least I never saw him drinking and he didn’t reek of Thunderbird like some regulars. I don’t know his real name or what he did and where he kept his belongings when he wasn’t spending days at a time living by the flickering light of the movie projector. It would seem that he just decided one day to live at the movies.

He especially loved horror flicks (duh, dude called himself Wolfman!), lived for them, lived WITH them, absorbing obscure minutia and memorizing endless trivia about the objects of his obsession which he’d spout at the slightest provocation. He frequently got into arguments with theater employees or other patrons, usually over something to do with the movies, sometimes becoming downright violent, but more on Wolfy in a moment.


There wasn’t much to the job itself, any drone could put on a red suit and sell tickets, fill containers with popcorn and soda, count money, sweep carpets. But everyone I met who worked there, day and night and overtime for a measly $3.50 to $4.50 an hour, seemed to really love their jobs.

In my case, I occasionally got to flirt with a pretty girl (sneaking her a free coke refill was a good opener). And there was, I guess you’d say, a mild and probably pathetic “power trip” involved, wearing a “uniform,” swinging around that big black flashlight, entrusted with the keys to the snack bar and money till, access to all the nooks and crannies in the projector booth, the back rooms, behind the screen.

And we were empowered to – if faced with an extreme situation – “refuse admittance,” just like it said we reserved the right to do on the cash register. We even had the power, if not always the ability, to eject customers from the premises, at least those patrons who weren’t doubled over with laughter from being asked to leave by a guy in a red suit waving around a big black flashlight.


The main thing we loved about the job was THE MOVIES! Walnut employees could sign in for free at any of the theaters to see any movie, any time, and were encouraged to do so, to be up on all the circulating features. Most all of us were devotional film buffs, the kind of JuJu Bead junkies seduced by the sound of mammoth Simplex movie projectors and its big spinning reels, who had no problem sitting through five, seven, ten or more features a week.

I think most of us genuinely felt we were “in the movie business” and it was a serious and solemn part of the job, to personally view every single new feature (or old feature, or feature we’ve already seen a buncha times but it’s just so doggone cool and maybe that girl I gave the free soda to will show up again, this time without her bitchy girlfriend…). Business was good, on weekends the house was often sold out, some decent movies were coming out in the late 70s and early 80s and all in all it was a pretty cool gig. Did I mention the big black flashlight?

 Few things in my life can compare to the anticipation I used to feel on Thursday nights, in the middle of the a.m. - standing on a rickety ladder on 5th Avenue and putting up the Casino marquee letters announcing the new week’s lineup of features. Usually, I’d be back at the theater myself a few hours later, well off my shift, just to catch that first “virgin” showing, and most times there’d be half a dozen other Walnut staffers sprinkled in the crowd as well. By the end of the weekend, we’d pretty much all viewed the new flicks and were debating their merits or lack thereof in company quorums held behind the snack bars, between intermissions.

The mix of brand new films and older features was a cost effective way for Walnut to offer multiple bills, cheap and ‘round the clock, and even schlocky B-movies that had already been on TV were fun to see on a big screen, in that environment, with an audience. How can you say you’ve truly experienced “Planet Of The Apes” if you’ve never been deafened by a room full of people who erupt like socker hooligans when Charlton Heston growls “Get your sticking paws off me, you d*ed dirty ape!”

b23 And not all the movies were 2nd run - we had a print of “Alien” on its first week of release that packed the Cabrillo to the rafters for fourteen days straight, circulating it between theaters after that as a guaranteed draw and selling out houses no matter where it played or what lame backup features it was paired with (“Buck Rogers In The 25th Century” and “Battlestar Galactica” for instance, two re-edited TV shows that cost the company almost nothing to rent).

Sometimes, the feature bills were totally unplanned, just randomly matched movies that by rights should never have run back to back –

b2 b3 “The Muppet Movie” with Charles Bronson’s “Death Wish” comes to mind as one odd pairing. There always seemed to be a print of the 1979 sci-fi action film “Mad Max” floating around, a dependably popular bottom-of-the-bill backup feature that opened for the rape drama “The Accused” and the farcical “Airplane,” among others.

sdmoviead10-31-75 I liked the themed packages best, these often brought out a colorful cult crowd who showed up in big numbers and ate a lot of expensive snack bar crap. “Phantom Of The Paradise,” a rock and roll camp classic from 1974, played on a triple bill with Ken Russell’s “Tommy” and the Rocky Horror semi-sequel “Shock Treatment.”

b8 Recycled older prints, long out of theater circulation but too new for TV, were also part of Walnut’s short-lived secret for success. The more violent, the more seats sold. Some prints were such audience favorites that they turned up every few months, always drawing repeat customers and big appreciative crowds. “Rolling Thunder” (1977) was one such perennial, kind of a sordid precursor to the “Rambo” movies with William Devane as a POW who comes home from Vietnam, witnesses his family brutally murdered and goes on a killing spree in search of vengeance.

b115 “The Toolbox Murders” (1978) was another, about a handyman who savagely offs nekkid women with his claw-hammer, a screwdriver, a power drill and – gulp - a nail gun! “Dawn Of The Dead” (1978) sold out weekend AND weekday showings all the time, while “Friday The 13th” (1980) was so popular that, at one point, it was screening in three theaters at the same time.

The audience’s support and enthusiasm for such celluloid bloodbaths was disturbing, at least to me (certainly Walnut loved those customers, they kept us in business). From the lobby, we could hear them roar with applause at certain intervals and be able to say to ourselves “Oh, that’s the part where the guy burns the junkie’s balls off with a flamethrower” and then screams of delirious laughter where we’d know “that must be when he gives her the toothpick with the eyeball on it and says ‘beats a sharp stick in the eye.’”

b4 When we screened Walter Hill’s surreal fantasy “The Warriors” (1979), about teenage gangs waging war in a fictionalized New York City underworld, everyone in the theater always chanted along with the villain when he taunts the “good guys,” ad infinitum in a nasal whine, “Warriors, come out and play! Warriors, come out and PLAY!!!”

When the Warriors finally did indeed come out to play, the brain-bashing was greeted with a collective cheer loud and sustained enough to nearly bring down the half-century old roof.

At first, talking to our customers and meeting so many fellow movie buffs was like finally finding myself a home on the island of misfit toys. That said, the sort of movies we usually showed attracted an oddball clientele and I didn’t always enjoy chatting up the patrons.


In 1980, we ran a cultish little flick called “Fade To Black,” with Dennis Christopher as a teenage movie fanatic who commits several murders by reenacting his favorite celluloid death scenes. It’s basically about being so obsessed with movies that you can’t distinguish them from reality. Christopher appears in one scene with half his face painted white as Dracula, his hair slicked back on one side only, while the other side of his face and hair is “normal,” just before he commits one of his most gruesome murders (wherein he drinks his female victim’s blood). The first time a customer arrived with his own face made up in exactly the same way, I considered invoking that “right to refuse admittance” sign on the register.

sdmoviead2-18-68a Then there was a guy at the Aztec, with a long beard and needle marks who I don’t think was a diabetic Hassidic, who got more and more amped up as he sat through something like twenty straight hours of “Blood Feast” (1963), “2,000 Maniacs” (1964) and “Color Me Blood Red” (1964), three infamously violent “splatter” films by the godfather of gore, H. Gordon Lewis. When he started shouting and swearing at the screen, and at other patrons, in some kind of increasingly deluded state, nobody wanted to be the one to ask him to leave, he seemed dangerous (though at least a dozen other customers ignored the commotion and kept watching the movies).

Someone called police but they never showed and the only way we got rid of the guy was to stop running film at 4am, announce we were closing, wait until he (and everyone else) left the theater, only to reopen an hour later with the films back on their posted, advertised schedule.

It sucked when all the movies on the bill were dogs. There were weeks I couldn’t stand the thought of walking through the auditorium one more time to be faced with scenes from, say, “The Awakening,” a really boring 1980 mummy flick where the only drama is trying to figure out what’s moving slower – the plot, the mummy or Charlton Heston.

b5 “Prophecy” (1979) by director John Frankenheimer (“The Manchurian Candidate”) was another one everyone hated - made out to be a horrific monster movie in ads and posters, it was instead a preachy tract on environmentalism where the audience never even got to see a BEM (Bug Eyed Monster).

Ditto for 1979’s “The Fog,” where the only monsters in the movie were bouncing around under Adrienne Barbeau’s sweater. And, despite my admiration for Bruce Lee’s prototypal oeuvre, it was hard to get into the badly dubbed copycat kung fu flicks we were usually saddled with (starring “Bruce Li” or “Bruce Le” or “Bruce Lei” or “Bruce L. Eee”). Still, there was always something different unspooling down the street and, even if all those movies sucked, the marquees would soon be changing again come Thursday night/Friday morning.

The Casino was my favorite place to work overnights. Up in the rear of the balcony was a door to a storage room where spare uniforms and “wet floor” signs were kept. The room had a small window facing outside the building, just over the top of the flashing marquee, and anyone paying attention could probably have spotted the evidence of how popular the spot was for clerks who liked to smoke a joint during their break, blowing the smoke out over 5th Avenue.

I got caught in there once, not smoking but making out with a teenage Hispanic girl I’d seduced with free Kit-Kats and Coke (in a cup, not on a mirror). The manager wasn’t so mad about the girl in the room, but I nearly got fired because I hadn’t paid for the candy yet (they counted inventory between shifts and we were responsible for every last nougat and bon-bon).

b13 The Aztec at the end of the block always seemed to host more trouble than the Casino, as I speculated on before. In 1981, during a showing of “Pink Flamingos” (1973) and “Polyester” (new at the time and showing in “Oderama,” with scratch-and-sniff libretto), a group of well over a dozen flamboyantly dressed men, most in drag, weren’t even in the theater yet when a violent battle erupted between them on the sidewalk.

Freddie always referred to it after that as “the fifteen fggt fight,” barely able to control his laughter every time it came up. It was an astonishingly cartoon sight and sound, all these guys screeching insults and flaming at their hottest, slapping each other and crying and pulling their wigs off, whacking each other with strappy shoes…it went on forever while we waited for the cops to come break it up. The fifteen fggt fight is etched in my memory far more clearly than anything from “Pink Flamingos” or “Polyester.”


I never minded being sent to work the Horton Plaza theaters, which occasionally lucked into first-run A-list features like 1981’s summer biggie “Raiders Of The Lost Ark” (albeit backed with yet another yellowish print of “Mad Max”). Usually, though, they were screening schlocky also-rans like “The Day After Halloween,” not a sequel to the John Carpenter hit “Halloween” but an unrelated Australian movie originally called “Snapshot” and later retitled in order to cash in on the other film’s fame. I remember fielding refund demands from angry customers over that one, which usually only happened when the films broke, didn’t screen on time or were shown with the reels in the wrong order (this happened more often than you might think).  

miranda11  Occasionally, I manned the snack bar at the Balboa, on the southwest corner of 4th Avenue and E street. This once-majestic 1,500 seat theater was built in 1924, designed for stage and screen with a single-balcony, ornate chandeliers, an orchestra pit and whimsical twenty-eight foot tall vertical fountains built into the walls on either side of the stage which used to operate at full force during intermissions.

The building housed vaudeville acts in the 1920s and then was used almost exclusively to screen movies after 1932, through Hollywood’s most golden era. Grandiose by any standards, the Balboa fell into hard times and disrepair in the fifties, until it was almost demolished for a parking lot in 1959. Russo Family Enterprises bought the building, remodeled it and the theater was run by the blue chip Fox chain until being leased to Walnut in the late 70s.

miranda9 Walnut ran the grande olde girl in the same lackadaisical and exploitative way as its other grindhouses, marking what is to some an ignoble period for the one-time crown jewel of downtown theaters.

b15 Many of us loved the moviegoing experience of going into that dusty, fantastical palace, though I realize not everyone can appreciate the guilty glory of stuffing popcorn down your esophagus beneath those monster sized chandeliers while grooving on a Blaxploitation triple feature of “Shaft,” “Cleopatra Jones” and the all-time baddest of afro-mofo badasses “Blacula” (played by William Marshall, who would one day become the King Of Cartoons on Pee Wee’s Playhouse).  

balboaartfnl The Balboa was seamlessly absorbed into the chain and the clerks wore the same red uniform tops and black pants as at the Cabrillo, the Plaza, the Aztec, the Casino - and just down the block, at the Pussycat Theatre.


 (4th Avenue Pussycat circa 1979)

The Pussycat was notorious for sidewalk posters that assaulted passersby with graphic (not quite explicit) images from triple-X features with titles like “Talk Dirty To Me,” “Taboo,” “The Budding Of Brie” and “A Scent Of Heather” (no, not in “Oderama”). The décor was immediately seedy, even seen from a distance - faded and cracked tile lit by flashing red and purple lights.


I didn’t like working at the Pussycat as much as I thought I would. The novelty of fifteen-foot tall genitalia wore thin after the first few hours and the non-stop moaning and groaning (usually listless overdubs recorded by bored, fully-clothed “thespians”) quickly grated on the nerves to the point where I could barely recall what actual, factual sex sounded like.

mirandathroatad5-29-77 (5-29-77)

Plus, I hated handling money peeled from the sticky palms of sweaty looking men who smelled like a gangbang where nobody remembered to bring towels.

peep152 People literally hid their faces when they walked up to the Pussycat, and the first thing the manager said to me on my first night of training was “If you see someone you recognize, pretend they’re a complete stranger no matter how well you know them.” This was good advice and later that night, when I saw the guy who worked at a sandwich shop down the street, I resisted the urge to say “Hey, Scotty” even as I vowed never to eat a sandwich there again.

xx106 For awhile, the Pussycat had a swinger couple, in their early 30s maybe, good looking, who’d come in at least once or twice a week to watch a movie and then, well, put on a little show of their own. The clerks liked this couple and we found a lot of excuses to whip out our big black flashlight and do an auditorium walk-through.

Some things the other clerks told me about their own encounters with The Swinger Couple seemed even then to be the stuff of urban myth, but I did see the two of them in action, in the seats, and can attest that they were into public sex in a big way. They never talked to me, but I often saw them talking to other patrons, before or after (and at least once during) their private showtime, and usually the couple would leave with a patron or two exiting right behind, if not with, them.

This was not an aspect of social interaction I’d ever encountered before.

In the years since, I’ve spent an obsessive amount of time wondering what possible “pickup lines” were appropriate and effective in that particular situation –

“Excuse me, but it’d be a shame for that erection to go to waste.”

“The two of us are doing an in-depth survey on threesomes for the Kinsey Institute, can you help us out?”

“You know, my wife can do that with her hands tied behind her back.”

“Did you ever want to be in your own porno movie?”

Or perhaps, simply, “Fck my wife…please.”


I only spent a few weeks at the Pussycat but, when I went back to the Aztec and Casino, the two 5th Avenue theaters were switching off showing X-rated features as well, serving a three-pack of porno at the Aztec one week and at the Casino the next.

  Even the non-X features were getting increasingly nasty, as was the neighborhood at night – you can actually get a taste of this in the 1979 film “Hardcore.” One scene shows downtown San Diego at its Sodom & Gomorrha peak, with George C. Scott stumbling through wall-to-wall porno theaters and adult bookstores in search of information about his missing porn star daughter, barely concealing his disgust as he makes his way down 4th and 5th Avenues, dodging hunchbacked junkies and drooling perverts at every step. It wasn’t an unrealistic picture.

peepshow As things got sleazier, all the theaters, X and R, were closing earlier and opening later, even on weekends. Gang graffiti was becoming more common, as were altercations between patrons. Wolfman got taken out by police one night, along with a big bruiser he’d gotten into a fistfight with, and it took several weeks before he talked Freddie into letting him “move” back in. When he began coming around again, he was scary looking, even for him, strung out and hollow, like the denizens of the sidewalk exposed to the light in “Hardcore.”

peep300 One morning at the Casino, I was clearing out the auditorium for the cleaning crew and went to shake this bearded, homeless looking older guy, a regular who came around a lot, to wake him up. The guy slumped over, cold, blue and dead. It was some sort of seizure or attack I think, all I remember is someone saying later that he definitely died from “natural causes.”

Another night, Freddie and I had to bounce a drunk guy who dropped and smashed a liquor bottle on the cement floor under his seat – our bouncee showed up later, after we closed, standing outside the locked doors, swearing and waving a handgun around. Cops showed up within two minutes of us calling and he easily surrendered but these incidents were just two of many that had me wondering if I was really cut out to be “in the movie business.”

Things downtown were changing, getting more dicey, more dangerous. The only thing that hadn’t changed was the pay, which seemed to peak at $4.50 hourly for clerks and apparently little more for managers, judging from the high turnover.

Then there were rumors of the buildings being up for sale, or that the theaters were slated for closure as part of the new Gaslamp Quarter redevelopment plans (the entire district was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980). A lot of longtime Walnut staffers were quitting to take jobs elsewhere, leaving barely enough employees to cover even the shortened hours. I was doing a lot of double shifts and overtime, so dead on my feet some nights that I was falling asleep in the seats on my breaks.

b9 In summer ’81, the Aztec was screening this really dumb chop sock-y flick called “Kung Fu Of Eight Drunkards,” about martial artists who develop a method of kicking ass under the influence (I sht thee not…). Wolfman was there, he loved kung fu flicks, as were five karate students, fresh from class and still wearing their uniforms with (mostly dark colored) achievement belts. Who knows how or why, but Wolfy got into a fight with the karate guys.

I was behind the snack bar, I heard shouting and swearing and ran into the auditorium to find a scene straight out of the movie flashing up on the screen…call it “Wolfman Versus The Karate Kidz.” Wolfy was spinning around, kicking and throwing punches wildly in all directions while the karate kids were using their fists of fury to connect quite a few blows of their own, on each other as much as on Wolfman.

The rambunctious crowd egged them on, cheering like a prizefight, guys kept getting shoved into the seats and several chairs got broken up during the melee. I yelled and waved my big black flashlight, nobody listened, bodies kept flying, cops were summoned and Wolfy and his fellow combatants beat feat through the rear exit doors just as the sound of sirens reached the theater.

After that, we weren’t allowed to let Wolfman in any more. I don’t know who handed him the decree or when it happened – I never saw him again. The broken chairs remained busted for the remainder of my tenure on the downtown all-nighter circuit, which, though I didn’t realize it at the time, was drawing to a close.

My favorite place to take a meal break was in the basement of the Aztec, access to which meant you had to go outside, round the corner, unlock a gate and go down stairs to enter a long low-ceilinged room below the theater. On row after row of makeshift wooden shelves, tucked into manila envelopes and file folders, were literally thousands of movie posters, press kits, film stills and lobby cards.

The theater had been keeping and filing away all the film company promotional material since the sixties and the accumulation filled the entire basement, all stamped “Aztec” in big red letters on the back. You can imagine that, to even the most casual movie buff, this was a near magical place to hang out, to just pick up a few stacks of paper and unfold the posters to admire the brilliant marketing and carnival-barker hucksterism.

The ads for the movies ranged from Bob Hope’s “Call Me Bwana” (1963) through John Wayne triple features, the Beatles “Yellow Submarine” (1968), “American Graffiti” (1973) and “The Buddy Holly Story” (1978), 70s exploitation cheapies, comedies, thrillers, horror, sci-fi, westerns, martial arts, softcore porn – it was an amazing archive, chronicling the best and worst of two decades of cinema history.

My favorite posters were the ones with hyperbole heavy taglines –


“Astro Zombies” - “See brutal mutants menace beautiful girls!” (1969)


“The Pigkeeper’s Daughter” – “She brought a new meaning to the phrase ‘Driving A Hard Bargain’!” (1972)


“Invasion of the Bee Girls” - “They’ll love the very life out of your body!” (1973)


“Wham-Bam Thank You, Spaceman” – “He’s a UFO Romeo!” (1973)

b21 “The Erotic Adventures Of Pinocchio” – “It’s not his nose that grows!” (1974)

b19 “Son Of Blob” - “It’s loose again, eating everyone!” (this one starred a post-Jeannie and pre-Dallas Larry Hagman) (1972)


And the graphics – how could anyone not appreciate the glorious stupidity of a poster like the one for “Green Slime” (1968), with a painting of a busty young woman floating around in outer space, wearing a skintight spacesuit, high heels, yes I said high heels – no gloves! - her glass bubble helmet UNATTACHED to her spacesuit, with a CUTAWAY in her spacesuit that exposes her CLEAVAGE and looking mildly displeased as one of the titular slime tries to slip its tentacles around her thigh.


(Sidewalk in front of the Casino and part of the marquee, as seen in the 1979 movie A Force of One, starring Chuck Norris)

In July 1981, the manager of the Aztec told us the theater was about to be sold and the new owners might want to remodel the building for something completely different, maybe a multiple-screen moviehouse. He recommended that we all put together our resumes because other theater sales and possible closures were imminent.

I asked what would happen to all the posters, stills, lobby cards and press kits in the Aztec basement and he said, so far as he knew, everything would probably be thrown out. I’ve often wondered what happened to that treasure trove of Hollywood memorabilia. Considering ever-rising collector’s prices, the mint-condition contents of that basement today would be worth many hundreds of thousands of dollars – conservatively.

With both my job satisfaction and job security in deep decline, I was walking home from work at about 5 a.m. when someone I couldn’t see clearly leapt out from behind a parked car and struck me on the back of my head with something hard and heavy. I woke up in an ambulance, my wallet still in my back pants pocket with some $40 or so tucked into it.

Earlier that evening, at the Casino, I’d bounced a surly teen customer, I forget over what but I’ve always assumed the guy was my assailant. After I took a few stitches to my head, I caught a cab back to the theater and gave the day manager my notice. He asked me to work one more week before quitting and I may have said yes but I don’t think I ever went back, not even to pick up my final paycheck.

I moved back to the east coast and took a job with a record store chain, staying a little over a year. By the time I finally made my way back downtown to get my ticket punched again at an all-nighter, it was too late.

They were all gone.



The Cabrillo Theater remained in operation until 1982, as did the Plaza (renamed for awhile the Owl). Both were demolished to make room for the Horton Plaza Shopping Mall with its 140 retail shops spread out over five Byzantine levels. A United Artists seven-screen movie theater opened in Horton Plaza in 1985. In 1997, Pacific Theatres built a $15 million, 15-screen megaplex theater, the Pacific Gaslamp at 701 5th Avenue at G Street near Horton Plaza.

The Aztec and Casino theaters on Fifth Avenue closed and reopened under various owners for a few more years before the doors were padlocked for good. The theater buildings were acquired by the Hollywood-based development firm CIM in 1996, as was the space where the Foxy Theater used to show porno reels.

azteccasinomarqueetoday By 2,000, CIM had converted the entire 15,000 square foot area into a two story shopping complex currently housing a Ghirardelli Soda Fountain And Chocolate Shop, an Urban Outfitters branch and a sportswear store. Elements from the Aztec can still be seen in Urban Outfitters (exposed brick walls and steel framework) and a revamped version of the old Casino marquee now serves as the main signage for Ghirardelli’s.


The Balboa was boarded up and left to rot for most of the next twenty years, even after it was acquired through eminent domain (condemning) by the city of San Diego’s Center City Development Corporation. A $10 million dollar restoration plan for the historic 79 year old building was approved by a City Council committee in 2002, with the theater re-opening in early 2008, to great civic acclaim. The movie marquee was taken down and a replica of the original rectangular "Balboa" was installed (below photo shows the reopened Balboa in February 2008).


There are currently only two single-screen moviehouses still operating in the San Diego area - the La Paloma in Encinitas (built in 1927) and the Ken Cinema (opened 1946) in Kensington.


(8-29-73 local movie ads: Proof that even the Mann theater chain briefly screened hardcore porn! Tho they couldn't bring themselves to print the NAME of the porno....)

(Thanks to www.myspace.com/sandiegocinerama for many of the old theater ads seen above! Also thanks to Vincent Miranda’s godson Tim David, for Miranda photos, clippings, etc.)


VINCE MIRANDA: THE MAN WHO RAPED SAN DIEGO (courtesy Mythusmage Opines blog archive)

In this story Jay Allen Sanford speaks highly of one Vincent Paul Miranda. A downtown San Diego property owner in the years before the construction of the Horton Plaza Shopping Center.

According to Mr. Sanford, Mr. Miranda shaped downtown San Diego. His implication being that this shaping was for the good. Vincent Paul Miranda’s shaping very nearly killed downtown San Diego

Miranda was a slum lord. Not, primarily, in the fleabags and flophouses he ran, but in the entertainment venues he operated. Every theater, bar, restaurant he touched would soon be a cesspool long overdue for a good nuking.

Properties that could have been improved, made legitimate sources of pride became nothing more than flop houses with the homeless sleeping in the seats as old films played on rotting screens.

Even the old Balboa Theater, once a gem in San Diego’s crown, became a sh-t nugget under his ownership.

And then you have Miranda’s “mainstreaming” of porn. The same old crap people had been watching in dingy, stinky, filthy theaters started to appear in dingy, stinky, filthy theaters befouled with the sort of lighting scheme that would make a '60s Las Vegas casino owner blind himself with battery acid administered drop by slow drop over a period of weeks.

Vincent Paul Miranda was the anti-Midas, turning everything he touched into sh-t. His properties collapsed in value, and because of his presence in an area, and because of the sort of people he attracted, other properties lost value as well.

Mr. Sandford’s civic savior turned downtown San Diego into a disgrace and a drain on the city’s finances. All because he was a self-serving, greedy, tastleless sociopath, out to make money with no consideration given to the lives and the community he was destroying.

The article...serves as an example of how someone can let his beliefs, his romanticism and knee jerk reactions to change, warp and pollute his thinking. He makes Miranda into some sort of anti-establishment hero, when the man was the worst sort of manipulator, bigot, and Mafia b-tch you’d ever want to meet. Vincent Paul Miranda, the man who raped San Diego.

20 Responses to The Man Who Raped San Diego Dan Whitehead July 1st, 2007 at 8:50 pm I wonder if mythusmage is one of the hordes who swept into San Diego from the outside who are the ones who really “raped” San Diego? Or perhaps one of the thieving parasites from the self righteous, taxpayer supported CCDC or city council who used the color of law (aka “Eminent Domain”) to steal the private property of others? Sounds to me like mythusmage is the romantic knee-jerker.

MYTHUSMAGE REPLIES: Came to San Diego with my sibs and my folks in 1956. I was living downtown back when things went down, even slept in one of Miranda’s 5th Avenue cinemas a few nights. Nobody went downtown back then. Not unless they had to. Homeless everywhere, same with pimps and prostitutes. More drugs got sold on the corner than in the drug store.

I remember when 5th was an outdoor nut-ward. I remember when peepshows could be found up and down the district, and when only clueless tourists came to look around. I once saw a kid get busted for -jaculating all over a toilet stall at a porn theater. Drunks in the gutter, loonies in the doorways, and hookers trolling for marks in the lunch hour. I was there, Whitehead, where the f--k were you?

Dan Whitehead July 2nd, 2007 at 7:24 am I was there too, you pompous windbag, and I say you’re a liar. Things weren’t great, but neither were they that bad. What porn theatre were you in to know that some kid was arrested for ejaculating all over a toilet seat? I wonder what we’d find if we had you investigated? Perhaps you’ve made major profits off the real rape of downtown. Perhaps you’re one of the tax parasites of the CCDC or the city council who were/are the real rapists. Your foul language tells me a lot by itself and is ever the sign of one with an exhausted intellect and one with something to hide. Your shrill, shrieking stridence indicates hypocrisy.

Dan Whitehead July 2nd, 2007 at 7:35 am By the way, I notice that you attack Miranda now that he’s dead and gone and unable to defend himself. Now isn’t that just a typical tactic of the self righteous type that I suspect you are.

Tim David July 2nd, 2007 at 7:53 am I am not going to throw nasty names at this person that obviously never met Mr. Miranda. If he had ever spoke to anyone that actually knew him, he would never had written such nasty words about such a warm, and caring man.I have countless emails from people across the country with stories of his kindness and generosity. He had great taste, and a huge heart. If Mr. Miranda had not spent his millions of his dollars on properties throughout California, many would have been torn down, and turned into a parking lot or a McDonalds. Cheers to Jay for writing a truthful and accurate article. I am proud to be part of it.

mythusmage July 2nd, 2007 at 8:25 am Dan, Tim, I saw his work. I saw the result of his work. I lived on the streets he created, I watched the people that environment attracted. I didn’t deal with Mr. Miranda directly, I did deal with the fallout of his activities.

BTW, mythusmageopines.com costs me $5.00 a month for the site, and $10.95 a year for the domain name. Do a “whois” on “mythusmageopines.com”. I’m currently paying $272.00 a month rent for a studio at Horton House.. You want me to be a rich bastard, there’s always the tipjar.

I like the Gaslamp. I like what it’s like on the weekend. There’s life here now, and it’s a better sort of life than when I was homeless myself. I saw what the man wrought from a vantage point you can’t visualize, because you dwelt on a higher plane. You knew the man, I knew the results of what he did, and I got a better picture of what he was like than you ever could.

Tim David July 2nd, 2007 at 8:45 am Silly man. You will NEVER have a better picture of what he was like. You should do bit more research about a person prior to writting such things about them.

Dan Whitehead July 2nd, 2007 at 9:08 am I believe you don’t know as much as you think you know. It sounds to me as if you might have been, and might still be, a loser. If you were “homeless” I’m willing to bet you brought it on yourself. I worked downtown every single day all through the ’70s and ’80s and into the ’90s, so I know how it really was. I’m not one who will be intimidated by bluster and bombast.

MYTHUSMAGE REPLIES: July 2nd, 2007 at 10:39 pm I lived in what he made. I couldn’t go home to a safe neighborhood, that option wasn’t open to me. I couldn’t get away. I’m happy for your success, I’m glad you could go to your safe home. I could’ve had a safe home. I could’ve lived in a vibrant community, but your hero made that impossible. Your hero so depressed property values and made downtown such an attractive nuisance that our sagacious city council was ready to throw up their hands and let it become a maze of abandoned buildings and abandoned people.

You want to think of someone with clinical depression (300 mg of Effexor a day) as a loser, I shan’t dissuade you. I was too screwed up to go anywhere else. Depression gives you f--k all in the way of options.

Remember your happy memories, but don’t expect me to share them.

Dan Whitehead July 3rd, 2007 at 7:51 am You are full of hogwash. You lived in what YOU made. If you were “homeless” I’m willing to bet it was because you were either one of the lazy and shiftless who just plain refused to work, or you chose to be a druggie or some other form of social parasite. Either way, you were/are nothing but a victim of your own irresponsible choices and NOT a victim of Mr. Miranda. I too suffer from depression, but it never kept me from earning a living. The San Diego that existed in that day was an easy, inexpensive place in which to get a life up and running. All you had to have was the will to work. You got your first job and you got your first apartment and you were on your way. I know because I DID IT!! And do you know what I had when I started? NOTHING AT ALL!! You’re pathetic, but of course the world has sunk so low now that you and your ilk have come into their own. Ejoy wallowing in your contemptible self pity and enjoy disseminating these fabrications that the ignorant outsiders will swallow. You don’t fool me. I repeat: I WAS THERE. As for Mr. Miranda being my hero? Well, that’s another word misused/over used by the increasingly ignorant masses. I would not have called him my hero, but I also liked him very much and had great respect for his WORK ETHIC (a concept now all but dead).

The world has sunk down low enough now so that you and your ilk have come into their own, so please enjoy your self pity and please enjoy disseminating these fabrications. I dont’ imagine you’ll be corrected by the ignorant outsiders who control San Diego these days.

Dan Whitehead July 3rd, 2007 at 9:57 am Oh, by the way, I forgot to mention that I too suffer from severe depression, and have since the days of my boyhood. What’s more, I’ve had AIDS since 1987. I never used either one of those things as an excuse to be “homeless” or to not earn a living and pay my own way.

MYTHUSMAGE REPLIES July 3rd, 2007 at 10:52 am Daniel, I’m not you, your experiences are not my experiences. They cannot be. You can only speak for yourself and no one else. I don’t have AIDS, so I cannot speak of having AIDS in any way. I can sympathize with someone who has AIDS (and congratulations on making it this far), but I can’t speak for them.

Things happened as they did, and there is no changing that. Our circumstances differed, so our lives differed. It is done and over with.

What it comes down to it, I can put myself in your place, but you haven’t shown me that you can put yourself in my place. Merely understanding my position appears to be beyond you. There is neither empathy or sympathy within you, and that is your real tragedy.

Dan Whitehead July 3rd, 2007 at 11:50 am First, my name is not Daniel, it’s Dan. It’s Dan on my birth certificate and on all legal documents. Second, I have no empathy or sympathy for those who wallow in self pity and blame others for their very own deliberate choices. None at all.

Dan Whitehead January 20th, 2008 at 10:52 pm I wonder, did you ever bother to apply for a job at any of Walnut’s theatres? They were pretty liberal in their hiring practices, and you probably would have wound up with a wage earning, tax paying/contributing job instead of being a “homeless” street person. If you were indeed one of the street people, I bet I knew you, as I knew most of them.

MYTHUSMAGE REPLIES January 21st, 2008 at 3:02 am Dan, I was homeless at the time thanks to clinical depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Gainful employment was just not in the picture.

You know how it goes; AIDS is a disease where you get bumped off by the sniffles, clinical depression is a disease where you get bumped off by yourself.

Dan Whitehead January 21st, 2008 at 9:37 am Clinical depression? Or declination? You know, I clearly remember LOTS of people employed by Walnut’s theatres and hotels; wage earning, tax paying/contributing, honest, hard working folks spending their earnings within the local economy. I also know Walnut paid plenty in taxes, licenses and regulatory fees. I guess that must all be part of the “rape” of San Diego, ha? What did you contribute?

MYTHUSMAGE REPLIES January 21st, 2008 at 9:56 pm And the place continued to degrade. Property values dropping, as were tax revenues. The city wasn’t about to spend the money to get south of Broadway going again, because they knew it was a hopeless task.

And what were all those Walnut employees working at? We both know the answer, ethically bankrupt goods in rundown properties. Erotica had a great opportunity to remake its image back then, and f--ked it away. Or have you forgotten the story behind Behind the Green Door?

Now what of the other properties, those not owned by Walnut? A few did well, that is true. But those that didn’t, those that stood vacant for all those years. What about them? I’ve walked 5th avenue at evening and I’ve noticed that it’s now busier on a slow Wednesday than it ever was back in the good old days.

Last of all, I know me better than you ever will. I’m under treatment for clinical depression, I take medication for clinical depression. I’m doing better now than I ever was back in your glory days.

Dan Whitehead January 22nd, 2008 at 9:54 am Well, this is all your opinion merely; nothing more, nothing less. I was there, I was in it, I know what I experienced, heard and saw. You know, I sure wish I could have taken time off from EARNING a living and CONTRIBUTING tax monies to have had myself declared “clinically depressed” (which I’m positive I could have done). It never ceases to amaze me how the non-productive/non-contributing tear down and strike at the productive/contributing.

Dan Whitehead January 22nd, 2008 at 10:04 am P.S. By the way, I never recall a time when the fees and taxes charged decreased (except, perhaps, during the time period of Proposition 13, which I think applied only to homes and not businesses). It is always and ever the nature of tax collectors/consumers to increase their stealings, not decrease them.

COMMENTS 1 - Well researched article and pretty close to factual concerning Vince and G.(George) Tate. I was the v/p of Walnut international productions inc. in the early 70's and there never was a Frank Clancy who put together the Backstage Restaurant, which was a pawn shop on 3rd& F before we built the Restaurant next to the Off Broadway. The story is true that there was a following out between myself and Vince, but it had nothing to do with Don Wortman who had his hands full, no pun intented, with the production of "Take It Off". This narrative caught the flavor of that period of history in downtown San Diego so many years ago.

By wrj001 1:57 p.m., May 27, 2008 > Report it

2 - To wjoo1

You are very much mistaken. There most certainly was a Frank Clancy and he most certainly is the person who was responsible for the opening of the Backstage. I'll tell you what though; it's you that I never heard of nor Walnut "International" for that matter. The only vice presidents at Walnut were Jimmy Johnson (who was head of the advertising department) and Dick Wittie (sp?) (who did the film booking for all the Pussycat houses). What's more, most, if not all, the payroll and employee records were shredded around 1988 or 1989 in the basement of the Hollywood Center Building, so your "research" couldn't have been very thorough. I'm also very much aware that there was a pawn shop at that corner before it became the Backstage; Western Pawn and Loan to be precise. I bought a lot of tools from them. It's too bad that the people who were really in the know are, for the most part, all dead and gone. The treacherous Don Wortman got Mr. Miranda to fire Frank just shortly after the Backstage opened so the he could take it over himself. You are very much in error, whoever you are. I stand by what I said. I was there; I hear, I saw I know.

By danwhitehead1 10:53 p.m., Jul 9, 2008 > Report it

THU10JUL08, 7:40P CST

I just spoke with the lady who was the office manager at Walnut and also Mr. Tate's secretary for many, many years right up 'til the time they shut down. I was wrong and stand corrected. Ethel said there was indeed a division of the company called Walnut International Productions; she said they called it WIP, but she has no idea who this person claiming to be vice president is. Unfortunately she doesn't remember Frank Clany. She says the name sounds familiar but she can't put a face to it. That's too bad because there WAS (and still is) a Frank Clancy and he WAS indeed the person who first opened its doors for business as its manager. I repeat, I stand by what I said.

By danwhitehead1 5:54 p.m., Jul 10, 2008 > Report it

Wow, great story! I worked at both the Casino and Bijoux around '84 or '85. I remember Dan Whitehead and also Angie, the manager at the Balboa. I'd do the recorded answering machine showtimes for all four theaters, and Angie would insist on buying me a sixpack of soda to show her gratitude (since I was underage and she couldn't buy me a drink!). For years I've wondered about those old theaters, downtown SD and Walnut properties... I always thought there was probably an interesting story there. I've lived in Los Angeles for the last 12 years, so I didn't see this when it ran in the Reader.

To the person who blamed Walunt properties for the state of downtown... I think that's pretty silly. Every downtown in every city in this country was abandoned and suffered the same way as people moved out to the suburbs in the 50s and 60s. I like to see what downtown has become, but I fondly remember what it used to be like too.

By davidge1 11:33 a.m., Oct 30, 2009 > Report it

I must have worked for Walnut around the same time, you did, jayallen. My brother's girlfriend had seen an ad in the paper for movie ushers, so we went down to the Balboa Theater, and both applied, me mainly to get out of the rain; I was hired, she wasn't. I was embarrassed to find out I was going to be working at the Plaza, where they showed mainly porno films, but as you rightly say in your article, the worst part wasn't the movies, which were ho-hum after a while (I stopped blushing and avoiding looking up about three months after I started working there), but the patrons, mostly sailors and old pervs. Still I preferred working there to the theater next door because they ran so many horror movies, and were really busy; my theater was steady but not crazy busy. I occasionally had to relieve clerks at that theatre and the Balboa, sometimes the other theatres on Fifth, including the Pussycat. Unlike you, I never felt I was in the movie business and rarely watched the movies; it was just a job, the guys were always hitting on me, same with the manager, and I was glad enough to leave it, and San Diego, after a while. I worked the overnight shift, though, and the downtown crowd was pretty interesting. There was a diner on the corner, you may recall, where I would sometimes eat, the strangest people hung out there. The other thing I remember is that you could not eat or drink anything from the snack bar; I've worked in other places where the employees can eat and drink pretty much as they please, but not Walnut. They counted every hot dog bun, every soda cup, every box of candy. And if you were short in the cash register, you had to make it up out of your pocket. Oh, I also remember that a lot of the guys that worked for Walnut were gay. The old guy I worked with had been a stage actor, and he was so great and fun to be with. Thanks for the memories, this was a great article to read!!

By CuddleFish 2:21 p.m., Oct 30, 2009 > Report it

WOW Jay! This has to be one of the best and amazingly informative articles I've ever seen in the Reader. It's bad I wasn't a teenager of the 70's here. I might've liked this town ALOT more than I do now. It's too bad what people are doing to this town. It's gone from Sodom & Gommorah-by-the-sea to Romper Room with a bunch of uptight namby pamby nimby liberals like MYTHUSMAGE. Bravo and well done sir!

By PistolPete 1:04 a.m., Oct 31, 2009 > Report it



"Pussycat Theaters - When 'Cathouses Ruled California" -- for the first time, the detailed inside story of the west coast Pussycat Theater chain of adult moviehouses, which peaked in the '70s but later died out. Told by those who actually ran the theaters! http://www.sandiegoreader.com/weblogs/bands/2008/aug/07/pussycat-theater-history-when-cathouses-ruled-ca-n/


"Battle Of The Peeps" - feature article about a weird gig I had in the mid-'80s, running a strip club called Jolar, for the nation's second biggest pornographer, Harry Mohney (Deja Vu Showgirls founder).


"Field Of Screens" - Cover story 7-6-06: Complete theater-by-theater history of San Diego drive-ins thru the years, including a few which screened X-rated fare for awhile.


********************************************* *********************************************

Like this blog? Here are some related links:

OVERHEARD IN SAN DIEGO - Several years' worth of this comic strip, which debuted in the Reader in 1996: http://www.sandiegoreader.com/photos/galleries/overheard-san-diego/

FAMOUS FORMER NEIGHBORS - Over 100 comic strips online, with mini-bios of famous San Diegans: http://www.sandiegoreader.com/photos/galleries/famous-former-neighbors/

SAN DIEGO READER MUSIC MySpace page: http://www.myspace.com/sandiegoreadermusic

JAY ALLEN SANFORD MySpace page: http://www.myspace.com/jayallensanford


I worked my first professional job as the technical director at the Broadway Dinner Theatre which was run by Don Wortman. I did a lot of work in Don's apartment, hanging pictures, building shelves etc. The trivia question we always asked was, "Is there a blank wall in Don's apartment?" He was an odd man who either liked you or did not like you. As a straight man I was a fish out of water in his world and did all I could to avoid any one on one situation. I ended up learning a lot from the experience. I once spent 5 days straight working with no sleep to prepare for an opening night. It was grueling and exciting at the same time. Many of the performers from the Broadway Dinner Theatre worked at the Backstage Restaurant. I remember well going through the Pussycat to get to the restrooms. My girl friend at the tie worked there and was part of the near revolt. I remember the confrontation between Vincent and Frank. Reading through this article brought me back to those days and to those people. I made many life long friends from that group and am grateful for that.

Tom White

Dec. 23, 2008

Some things and people still survive in SD, and periodic retro movements by younger generations will enable offbeat but unlikely revivals like the Old Spagetti Factory (which recently replaced the pricey nightholes in the Hard Rock Hotel, resurfacing in almost the same downtown spot where Spag fans flocked for years) and the Chi Chi Club to happen. The city's drive-in theaters are selling out, the single-screen Ken continues world class screenings, bands we listened to 35 years ago play the La Paloma and the Belly Up every week -- the past never really dies, tho it does get recycled every coupla generations.

The Reader online articles about the Gaslamp and the Pussycats still get read a bunch each day, and I doubt it's all people my age, so it's not all about nostalgia (That 70s Show on TV was primarily geared for contemporary kids, with guest stars like Alice Cooper and Ted Nugent who transcend generations).

So all in all I'd say our generation left its mark, which continues to be seen, heard, and felt everywhere you look - as long as you don't get distracted by sparkly vampires haunting our old hangouts, like the Horton shopping monstrosity and the Hard Rock/Big Money Hotel --

April 11, 2009

One-time Aztec Theater owner Charlie Smith has passed away. His business partner Wes Andrews, aka Andy, passed away awhile ago as well, so Smith was the last surviving person who operated the Aztec as a theater owner.

Terry Wiggins, who leased the Aztec and other theaters from Walnut Properties during its final days, is happily still with us. He's now one of the last surviving links to the the operators of downtown San Diego's long-gone grindhouse theater row.

Dec. 28, 2011

you lost your photos...

July 14, 2013

Sign in to comment

Sign in

Art Reviews — W.S. Di Piero's eye on exhibits Ask a Hipster — Advice you didn't know you needed Best Buys — San Diego shopping Big Screen — Movie commentary Blurt — Music's inside track Booze News — San Diego spirits City Lights — News and politics Classical Music — Immortal beauty Classifieds — Free and easy Cover Stories — Front-page features Excerpts — Literary and spiritual excerpts Famous Former Neighbors — Next-door celebs Feast! — Food & drink reviews Feature Stories — Local news & stories From the Archives — Spotlight on the past Golden Dreams — Talk of the town Here's the Deal — Chad Deal's watering holes Just Announced — The scoop on shows Letters — Our inbox [email protected] — Local movie buffs share favorites Movie Reviews — Our critics' picks and pans Musician Interviews — Up close with local artists Neighborhood News from Stringers — Hyperlocal news News Ticker — News & politics Obermeyer — San Diego politics illustrated Of Note — Concert picks Out & About — What's Happening Overheard in San Diego — Eavesdropping illustrated Poetry — The old and the new Pour Over — Grab a cup Reader Travel — Travel section built by travelers Reading — The hunt for intellectuals Roam-O-Rama — SoCal's best hiking/biking trails San Diego Beer — Inside San Diego suds SD on the QT — Almost factual news Set 'em Up Joe — Bartenders' drink recipes Sheep and Goats — Places of worship Special Issues — The best of Sports — Athletics without gush Street Style — San Diego streets have style Suit Up — Fashion tips for dudes Theater Reviews — Local productions Theater antireviews — Narrow your search Tin Fork — Silver spoon alternative Under the Radar — Matt Potter's undercover work Unforgettable — Long-ago San Diego Unreal Estate — San Diego's priciest pads Waterfront — All things ocean Your Week — Daily event picks
4S Ranch Allied Gardens Alpine Baja Balboa Park Bankers Hill Barrio Logan Bay Ho Bay Park Black Mountain Ranch Blossom Valley Bonita Bonsall Borrego Springs Boulevard Campo Cardiff-by-the-Sea Carlsbad Carmel Mountain Carmel Valley Chollas View Chula Vista City College City Heights Clairemont College Area Coronado CSU San Marcos Cuyamaca College Del Cerro Del Mar Descanso Downtown San Diego Eastlake East Village El Cajon Emerald Hills Encanto Encinitas Escondido Fallbrook Fletcher Hills Golden Hill Grant Hill Grantville Grossmont College Guatay Harbor Island Hillcrest Imperial Beach Imperial Valley Jacumba Jamacha-Lomita Jamul Julian Kearny Mesa Kensington La Jolla Lakeside La Mesa Lemon Grove Leucadia Liberty Station Lincoln Acres Lincoln Park Linda Vista Little Italy Logan Heights Mesa College Midway District MiraCosta College Miramar Miramar College Mira Mesa Mission Beach Mission Hills Mission Valley Mountain View Mount Hope Mount Laguna National City Nestor Normal Heights North Park Oak Park Ocean Beach Oceanside Old Town Otay Mesa Pacific Beach Pala Palomar College Palomar Mountain Paradise Hills Pauma Valley Pine Valley Point Loma Point Loma Nazarene Potrero Poway Rainbow Ramona Rancho Bernardo Rancho Penasquitos Rancho San Diego Rancho Santa Fe Rolando San Carlos San Marcos San Onofre Santa Ysabel Santee San Ysidro Scripps Ranch SDSU Serra Mesa Shelltown Shelter Island Sherman Heights Skyline Solana Beach Sorrento Valley Southcrest South Park Southwestern College Spring Valley Stockton Talmadge Temecula Tierrasanta Tijuana UCSD University City University Heights USD Valencia Park Valley Center Vista Warner Springs