And his phallus was stretched out in eagerness for the act of a man, the manly one pulled back. He drew back again from the maiden, his daughter, that tireless phallus which had been thrust in. As they were in the midst of the very act of union, when the father was satisfying his desire for the young girl, the two of them left a little of the out-flowing seed shed upon the back of the earth in the womb of good deeds. When the father shed his seed in his own daughter, he split his seed on the earth as he united with her. The benevolent gods created sacred speech and fashioned Rudra Vatospati, the protector of sacred rites…. The god satisfied his lust in his own daughter.… As the heat of passion came ot the king for his enjoyment, heaven laid aside on the ground the bright see that had been spilt…. Heaven is my father, the engenderer, the navel here. My other is this wide earth, my close kin. Between these two outstretched bowls is the womb; in it the father placed his daughter’s embryo.
— from Hymn 1.1 of the Rg Veda
The Rg Veda is a collection of ancient Vedic Sanskrit hymns. The title means, in Sanskrit, “praise, shine” (rc) and “knowledge” (veda). One of the four canonical texts of Hinduism known as Vedas, the book is organized into ten sections called Mandalas. In the eight earliest books, the hymns meditate on creation and the relationship between immortality and mortality, such as the above hymn indicates. It is thought that the Rg Veda was composed between 1500 and 1200 BC.