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  1. Emma Goldman: “San Diego had always enjoyed considerable freedom of speech” until “the city fathers passed an ordinance doing away with the custom.”
  2. Goldman: “Ben’s case was but one of many since the struggle in San Diego had begun, but it helped to focus greater attention on the scene of savagery.”
  3. Jim Miller: “The vigilantes were not aberrations in San Diego’s otherwise tolerant hegemony, but rather an expression of the city’s essential character.”


  • Davis, Mike, et al, Under the Perfect Sun: The San Diego Tourists Never See, New York, 2003.

  • Diehl, Robert Warren, “To Speak or Not to Speak: San Diego, 1912,” master’s thesis, University of San Diego, 1976.

  • Drinnon, Richard, Rebel in Paradise: A Biography of Emma Goldman, Chicago, 1961.

  • Dubofsky, Melvyn, We Shall Be All: A History of the Industrial Workers of the World, Chicago, 1969.

  • Foner, Philip S., The Industrial Workers of the World: 1905–1917, New York, 1965.

  • Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley, The Rebel Girl, New York, 1955.
  • Goldman, Emma, Living My Life, New York, 1931.
  • McWilliams, Carey, Southern California: An Island on the Land, Salt Lake City, 1946.

  • Miller, Jim, Flash, Oakland, 2010.

  • Articles in various newspapers.

Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4 | Part 5 | Part 6 | Part 8

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