By then the slashed tire had become a rallying cry for retaliation.
On January 10, the Sun announced: “The chances are strong that this ordinance will start a fight that will last a long time. Maybe there will be an invasion by the IWW and the advertisement of San Diego as a place against free expression of thought.”
Prophetic words. ■
- Melvin Dubofsky: Free Speech fights “were instigated primarily to overcome resistance to I.W.W. organizing tactics” and “to demonstrate that America’s dispossessed could…challenge established authority.”
- Chief Keno Wilson: “We will do our full duty. Every member of the police department has been ordered to enforce the new law to the letter.”
- Attorney Ernest E. Kirk: “We will fight the validity of the law to the limit. It is a class ordinance, not a traffic regulation!”
- Adler, William M., The Man Who Never Died, New York, 2011.
Castanian, Pliny, To Protect and Serve: A History of the San Diego Police Department and Its Chiefs, 1990–1989, San Diego, 1993.
Diehl, Robert Warren, “To Speak or Not to Speak, San Diego, 1912,” master’s thesis, University of San Diego, 1976.
Dubofsky, Melvin, We Shall Be All: A History of the Industrial Workers of the World, Chicago, 1969.
Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley, The Rebel Girl, New York, 1955.
Foner, Philip S., The History of the Labor Movement in the United States, vol. 4, New York, 1965.
Miller, Jim, Under the Perfect Sun: The San Diego Tourists Never See, New York, 2003.
Renshaw, Patrick, The Wobblies, New York, 1967.
Shanks, Rosalie, “The I.W.W. Free Speech Movement,” Journal of San Diego History, Winter, 1973, vol. XIX, number one.
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