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Larralde, Carlos M., “Roberto Galvan: A Latino Leader of the 1940s,” Journal of San Diego History, Summer/Fall 2006.

Miller, Jim, Under the Perfect Sun (New York, 2003); interview.

Nelson-Cisneros, Victor B., “UCAPAWA and Chicanos in California: The Farm Worker Period, 1937–1940,” Aztlan, Fall 1976, vol. 7, no. 3.

Ruiz, Vicki L. “Una Mujer Sin Fronteras: Luisa Moreno and Latina Labor Activism,” Pacific Historical Review, 2004; “The Border Journeys of Luisa Moreno,” in Women’s Labor in the Global Economy, New Jersey, 2007; Cannery Women/Cannery Lives: Mexican Women, Unionization, and the California Food Processing Industry, 1930–1950, New Mexico, 1987.

Sanchez, George J., Becoming Mexican American: Ethnicity, Culture and Identity in Chicano Los Angeles, 1900–1945, New York, 1993.

Vargas, Zaragosa, Labor Rights Are Civil Rights: Mexican American Workers in Twentieth-Century America, Princeton, 2005.

Read Part One: "The California Whirlwind"

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Prosperina July 19, 2011 @ 6:12 p.m.

I wish my grandfather had known her! He was a naturalized citizen from Chihuahua, Mexico - he and my grandmother left the area in the early 1900's to flee the revolution and Pancho Via's wildness. They both worked in Az - she for a rancher in their home, and he on the railroad projects. He had to rise well before sunup each morning and wait by the window of their two-room shack to see if the foreman would raise a lantern to call him to work. He labored very hard for most of his life, laying track and working at the ranch as well. He loved to read, and his children grew up with the same penchant for books and learning. And, although he worked well into his 70's and lived into his 90's - no pension to speak of, no employment rights, no sick leave, no vacations. None for my grandmother either, come to think of it. They could have used a Whirlwind.... what became of her in Mexico?!!!?


Jeff Smith July 19, 2011 @ 7:05 p.m.

Moreno lived another 42 years. She and her husband raised chickens in Chihuahua, Mexico. Then they lived in other Latin American countries. She went back to Guatemala, but fled when the U.S.-backed coup took over in 1954. For a while, after her husband died, she managed an art gallery in Tijuana (Cesar Chavez and Delores Huerta would visit her, asking advice about organizing). In 1984, the U.S. wouldn't let her return for medical treatment she needed badly (typical Rosa: she refused to cross the border incognito). Finally back to Guatemala, where she died November 4, 1992. Vicki L. Ruiz, who interviewed her and became a friend, is co-writing a biography of Moreno.


Twister July 19, 2011 @ 9:38 p.m.

The irony of much of the "border" tragedy is that Native American blood runs in most of the veins (DNA actually) of the so-called "aliens," and if "blood" (actually culture) counts (as apparently it does in Israel, for example), "they" were here first. There were no borders until the Europeans and their descendants made them by force. The Spanish were not appreciably “better” than the British, the “Americans,” or any of the other truly alien invaders. Given these facts it is incredible that the term "Hispanic" (of Spain or the Iberian peninsula of Europe) is used. That may be an inconvenient, embarrassing truth, but it is the truth. And the atrocities and suffering and deaths continue . . .


SurfPuppy619 July 27, 2011 @ 6:26 p.m.

What is even more ironic is nearly ALL of CA was a part of Mexico until the US took it.


SurfPuppy619 July 28, 2011 @ 6:21 p.m.

Native Americans????? just guessing though.


tomjohnston July 28, 2011 @ 11:41 p.m.

Actually, Mexico "got it" from Spain. If I remember my California history correctly, there were quite a few Europeans who explored California as as far back as the 1500's. Pretty familiar names, Cabrillo, Sir Francis Drake. The Spanish started moving in on the mid 1700's and building their missions. The one in Mission valley, was the first. Mexico took control in the early 1800's. The first inhabitants have been dated back about 15k yrs. Nobody has really proven for certain how they arrived or where they came from but most archeologists think that they arrived in the region between 15k and 13k years ago and that they came overland from Northeastern Asia. I don't know about calling them native americans though, since their was no america at the time. I think it was the Spanish who first started using the name California and then it ws for pretty much the entire southwest region that they controlled. Before that they were just natives. Thus endeth the history lesson for today


nan shartel July 30, 2011 @ 4:17 p.m.

ditto tomjohnson

but exploration and settlement by Europeans along the coasts and in the inland valleys began in the 16th century

the remains of Arlington Springs Man on Santa Rosa Island are among the traces of a very early habitation, dated to the Wisconsin glaciation (the most recent ice age) about 13,000 years ago. In all, some 30 tribes or culture groups lived in what is now California, gathered into perhaps six different language family groups. These groups included the early-arriving Hokan family (winding up in the mountainous far north and Colorado River basin in the south) and the recently-arrived Uto-Aztecan of the desert southeast. This cultural diversity was among the densest in North America, and was likely the result of a series of migrations and invasions during the last 10,000-15,000 years At the time of the first European contact, indigenous tribes included the Chumash, Maidu, Miwok, Modoc, Mohave, Ohlone, Pomo, Serrano, Shasta, Tataviam, Tongva and Wintu

The first European explorers, flying the flags of Spain and of England, sailed along the coast of California from the early 16th century to the mid-18th century, but no European settlements were established. The most important colonial power, Spain, focused attention on its imperial centers in Mexico and Peru. Confident of Spanish claims to all lands touching the Pacific Ocean (including California), Spain sent an exploring party sailing along the California coast. The California seen by these ship-bound explorers was one of hilly grasslands and wooded canyons, with few apparent resources or natural ports to attract colonists

boy were they WRONG...hahahahahahahaha

altho at the time most of Southern Callie was semi arid desert land

this is an interesting well researched series Jeff...kudos!!


tomjohnston July 30, 2011 @ 5:03 p.m.

"but exploration and settlement by Europeans along the coasts and in the inland valleys began in the 16th century"

Exactly as I said, there were quite a few Europeans who explored California as as far back as the 1500's. Most historians agree that Portuguese-born Juan Rodriquez Cabrillo was the first European to explore California in 1542, while sailing under the Spanish flag. In 1579, it was Englishman Sir Francis Drake claimed the whole territory for the English Crown. From the time the Spanish began their Mission settlements in 1769 until Californis fell under the control of the US, about 1/2 of the Indian population was wiped out, primarily due to diseases introduced by the Europeans and as the result of their mistreatment as slave labor with the resulting changesto their diet and nutrition(and the ensuing revolts becuase of their enslavement.) The Spanish were generous enough to give the natives the right to continue to occupy their villages, though. Something the whites seemed not to care about as they rolled their way across the great plains towards the West.

BTW, There have been literally thousands of books written on the anthropological history of the native californians. You're much too good a writer to just simply cut and past from wikipedia.


nan shartel July 30, 2011 @ 6:41 p.m.

aaaaahhhhhhh tom...but Wikipedia is so much better with the facts then i am

i won't hang my head about the cut and paste factoids...hahahahahahahahahaha


Twister July 30, 2011 @ 6:33 p.m.

In "those days" everybody non-indigenous was taking land from everybody else; hence Mexico's claims are no better than US's.


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