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Several years later an official expedition, led by Sebastián Vizcaino, set out with three ships to find one. ■

Next: Assault the Place of Peace


  1. W. Michael Mathes: “a tun (cask) equaled 953.9 liters. The capacity of ships commonly measured in tuns (sometimes tons) reflected the number of [possible] casks contained below deck rather than weight displacement.”
  2. Peter Gerhard: “It took Thomas Cavendish and the tremendous commercial loss of the Santa Ana to wake everybody up to the fact that the Pacific was not a Spanish lake anymore.”
  3. David Judkins, when Cavendish returned to England: “Although Elizabeth received him, she did not knight him.”


Alzola, Thomas, “Declaration made by Thomas de Alzola,” in Mathes, The Capture of the Santa Ana, Cabo San Lucas 1587.

Bolton, Herbert Eugene, Spanish Exploration in the Southwest, 1542–1706, New York, 1930.

De Sierra, Antonio, “Declaration made in Guadalajara, January, 1588,” in Mathes, The Capture of the Santa Ana, Cabo San Lucas 1587.

Gerhard, Peter, Pirates on the West Coast of New Spain: 1575–1742, Glendale, 1960.

Judkins, David, “Cavendish, Thomas (1560–1592),” in The Literature of Travel and Exploration, An Encyclopedia, London, 2003.

Mathes, W. Michael, Vizcaino and Spanish Expansion in the Pacific Ocean, 1580–1630, San Francisco, 1968; The Capture of the Santa Ana, Cabo San Lucas 1587, Los Angeles, 1969.

Pretty, Francis, “The admirable and prosperous voyage of the Worshipfull Master Thomas Candish of Trimley,” Hakluyt’s Voyages, vol. 8, London, 1907.

Wagner, Henry R., Spanish Voyages to the Northwest Coast of America in the Sixteenth Century, San Francisco, 1929.

Chapters: 2: Assault | 3: Vermilion Sea | 4: The Crews | 5: Water | 6: San Diego | 7: The Bay | 8: Scurvy | 9: Salvation

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