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Macedonio Gonzales stayed around San Diego until 1864, then moved north. Some say he lived for 105 years. — Jeff Smith

Next time: The American Invasion


Alonso, Ana María, Thread of Blood: Colonialism, Revolution, and Gender in Mexico’s Northern Frontier, Tucson, 1995.

Bancroft, Herbert Howe, History of California, vol. 3, 1825–1840, San Francisco, 1886.

Beebe, Rose Marie, and Senkewicz, Robert M., eds., Testimonios: Early California through the Eyes of Women, 1815–1848; Lorenzana’s recollections, pp. 165–192; Osuna’s recollections, pp. 145–163; Machado’s recollections, pp. 119–144.

Davis, William Heath, Seventy-Five Years in California, San Francisco, 1967.

De Mofras, Duflot, Travels on the Pacific Coast (Santa Barbara, 2004), vol. 1; source of Father Peyri’s quotation, p. 209.

Duhaut-Cilly, Auguste, A Voyage to California, the Sandwich Islands, and around the World, 1826–1829, trans. and ed. by Auguste Fruge and Neal Harlow, Berkeley, 1997.

Forbes, Jack D., Warriors of the Colorado: The Yumas of the Quechan Nation and Their Neighbors, Norman, 1965.

Harding, George L., Don Agustín Zamorano: Statesman, Soldier, Craftsman, and California’s First Printer, Spokane, 2003.

Janssens, Agustín, The Life and Adventures of Don Agustín Janssens, San Marino, 1953.

Pourade, Richard, The Silver Dons, San Diego, 1963.

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