“Their demands,” writes Manchester, “were rejected.”
“All of these [tuna] ships used to come down all shot up,” said Vince Battaglia of YP-346 years later. Everyone knew “that we were going to get it.” ■
Next time: YP-289 goes down.
- 1. Lucile Madruga: “‘Pork Chop Express?’ I’d never heard that name before.”
- 2. Vincent Battaglia: “Eddie Madruga…I always get mad at him. I can never find him [to] do anything wrong.”
- 3. Daniel Shapiro: “The Navy, impressed with the performance of the ships and the yippies’ crews, continued to add more tuna clippers into service to replace those that had been lost.”
Bunker, “Tuna Skipper Tells of No. 1 Morale Run,” San Diego Tribune, March 1, 1957.
Felando, August J., “Tuna Clippers & World War II,” Mains’l Haul, Winter/Spring 2008, volume 44: 1 & 2.
Madruga, Adeline (wife of Joe), and Madruga, Joseph Jr.; interview.
Madruga, Lucile (wife of Ed); interview.
Manchester, William, Goodbye Darkness: A Memoir of the Pacific War, London, 1982.
Rottman, Gordon L., World War II Pacific Island Guide: A Geo-Military Study, Connecticut, 2002.
Shapiro, Daniel, “The Pork Chop Express; San Diego’s Tuna Fleet, 1942–1945,” MA thesis, University of San Diego, 1993; interview with Ed Madruga, 1992, manuscript, San Diego History Center.
Articles in the San Diego Union, the San Diego Tribune, and other newspapers.
Part 1: Tuna boats go to war | Part 3: End of things behind enemy lines